Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 6: Respiration and Fermentation
Terms in this set (13)
Explain how catabolism and anabolism are linked. How is ATP involved in these processes? How do endergonic and exergonic reactions relate to catabolism & anabolism?
The process of catabolism releases energy that can be used to produce ATP. the process of anabolism requires ATP to produce ADP. endergonic reactions are anabolic because they build complex molecules from smaller ones. exergonic reactions are catabolic because you're breaking complex molecules to smaller ones.
How is synthesis of ATP and hydrolysis (breaking) of ATP related to the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics?
the synthesis of ATP is related to the 1st law of thermodynamics because it involves the transfer of electrons, you can't create or destroy energy only transformed. the hydrolysis of ATP is related to the 2nd law of thermodynamics because it involves the concept of entropy. you're breaking glucose into smaller molecules, releasing energy and resulting in increased entropy.
How could you represent respiration on a graph? Where do you position the reactants relative to the products? What is the formula for respiration (inputs and outputs)?
the reactants are high-energy molecules, the products are pow-energy molecules. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 36 ADP + 36 PO4 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP
How are oxidation & reduction reactions related to the process of cellular respiration?
you're oxidizing glucose C6H12O6 and transferring the energy to electron carriers, NAD+ and FAD to form NADH and FADH2
Why does cellular respiration only have a 37% energy efficiency?
37% of the energy stored in the bonds of a glucose molecule is stored as ATP. the rest goes to waste as heat
We discussed four stages of respiration: what are the four stages? What is the proper order of the four stages? Where does each stage take place within a cell? Which stage(s) require O2? Which stage is oxygen-independent?
stage 1: glycolysis⎼ takes place in the cytoplasm⎼ oxygen-independent
stage 2: pyruvate oxidation⎼ takes place in the mitochondrion matrix⎼ requires O2
stage 3: Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)⎼ takes place in the mitochondrion matrix⎼ requires O2
stage 4: electron transport chain (ETC)⎼ takes place in the mitochondrion matrix⎼ requires O2
Walk me through glycolysis. Where does it take place in the cell? What are the inputs? What are the outputs? Where do these outputs go relative to the rest of the stages of cellular respiration (what is their role?)? What is the difference between the total number of molecules synthesized and net gain?
glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm. 6-carbon molecule + 2 NAD + 2 ADP + 2 P ---> 2 pyruvic acids + 2 NADH + 2 ATP. the 2 pyruvic acids go to the pyruvate oxidation, the 2 NADH and 2 ATP go the electron transport chain. no difference both 2 ATP.
Walk me through pyruvate oxidation. Where does it take place in the cell? What are the inputs? What are the outputs? Where do these outputs go relative to the rest of the stages of cellular respiration? Why can one of these outputs potentially be used in the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis (what stage of photosynthesis?)? Why must the cell perform pyruvate oxidation twice every time one glucose is processed in glycolysis?
pyruvate oxidation takes place in the mitochondrion matrix. 2 pyruvic acids + 2 NAD+ ---> 2 Acetyl CoA + 2 CO2 + 2 NADH. the 2 Acetyl CoA goes to the Krebs cycle and the 2 NADH and 2 ATP go to the electron transport chain. CO2 can potentially be used in the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis stage 1 because it contains carbon. the cell must perform pyruvate oxidation twice because the product of glycolysis is 2 pyruvic acid molecules, they go in one at a time.
Walk me through the Citric Acid Cycle (aka CAC or Krebs cycle). Where does it take place in the cell? What are the inputs? What are the outputs? Where do these outputs go relative to the rest of the stages of cellular respiration? Why can one type of these outputs potentially be used in the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis (what stage of photosynthesis?)? Why must the cell perform the citric acid cycle twice every time one glucose is processed in glycolysis?
the Krebs cycle takes place in the mitochondrion matrix. 2 Acetyl CoA + 2 ATP plus 2 P + 6 NAD + 2 FAD ---> 4 CO2 + 2 ATP + 6 NADH + 2 FADH2. CO2 is a waste product but the rest go to the electron transport chain. CO2 can be used in the first stage of the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis because it contains carbon. the Krebs cycle must perform cycle twice because there are 2 pyruvic acids that come out of pyruvate oxidation, they go in the Krebs cycle one at a time.
Walk me through the electron transport chain (ETC). Where does it take place in the cell? What are the inputs? What are the outputs? Can you draw the series of molecules needed in the ETC? The placement is important; do you know the order of these components? Be sure to label: Enzyme complexes I, II, III, IV H2O, ADP, P, ATP, NAD+, NADH, FAD, FADH2, H+, mobile protein I, mobile protein II, ATP synthase, O2, e- (electrons). What is the source of electrons to keep the ETC going? The "stripping" or oxidizing of these molecules leads to the formation of what? What component is responsible for stripping this molecule of its electrons to keep the ETC going? What does this component do with the electrons? Why does this component need these high-energy electrons? Once they have accomplished their task, whom do these components give these electrons to in the ETC? Why are these electrons analogous to "hot potatoes"?
the electron transport chain takes place in the mitochondrion matrix. 6 NADH + 2 FADH2 ---> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + 36 ATP. the source of electrons to keep ETC going is NADH and FADH2. the oxidizing of these molecules form NAD+ and FAD. the component responsible for oxidizing NADH and FADH2 is enzyme complex I and II. this component moves electrons down the electron transport chain. once the last member of the electron transport chain is done and holding the ground-state electrons, they give it to oxygen and end up forming water. They are analogous to hot potatoes because every time the electrons move, they lost energy.
Why is a concentration gradient of H+ (protons) important in the ETC? Which components in the ETC are directly responsible for maintaining the proton gradient? How do they do this? Hint: Why could we nick name these components proton pumps? Why is this considered a form of active transport? How do these components "pay" to perform this active transport? Which molecule relies on facilitated diffusion of protons to perform its reactions? What reaction does this component catalyze? Why are the products of this reaction so important to the cell (how is it related to anabolism?)?
It is important because the H protons provide energy to the ATP synthase which uses the facilitated diffusion to let in all the H+'s to make ATP. The components responsible for this are the enzyme complexes, they do this by taking a portion of energy from the moving electrons and pump them through the protein.
What happens to the ETC if oxygen is not available? How would this affect the rest of cellular respiration? Why is fermentation linked to the absence of oxygen? What is the output of fermentation that allows a cell the ability to keep doing glycolysis? What is an output of fermentation that can build up in human? What is an output of fermentation for yeast that we use a commercial product?
if oxygen is not available, glycolysis is followed by fermentation. fermentation is linked to the absence of oxygen because it's anaerobic. the output of fermentation is ethanol and recycle NADH into NAD+ so you can put NAD+ through glycolysis again. lactic acid can build up in humans causing muscle fatigue and pain. ethanol.
How are Photosynthesis and Respiration related? Compare their inputs and outputs. How could you follow carbon atoms through both processes?
photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose. Cellular respiration takes glucose and oxygen and uses it to create ATP, water, and carbon dioxide.
Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H20 -> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Cellular respiration: C6H12O6 + 6 O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H20
Carbon is produced by the Krebs cycle in respiration and then is used in Calvin cycle in plants.
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Nelson Science Perspectives 10
Christy C. Hayhoe, Doug Hayhoe, Jeff Major, Maurice DiGiuseppe
Miller and Levine Biology, Mississipi Edition
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Alton Biggs, Hagins, Holliday
Sets found in the same folder
Chapter 7: DNA Structure and Gene Function
Chapter 10: patterns of inheritance
Chapter 8: DNA replication, binary fission, and mi…
Chapter 9: sexual reproduction and meiosis
Other sets by this creator
final exam !
Chapter 20: preserving biodiversity
Chapter 19: communities and ecosystems
Chapter 18: populations
Other Quizlet sets
Autonomic Control of Pulmonary System I & II
McCarthyism Quiz 100%
Planet Earth Test 1
Doc 2 MIDTERM
A substance that has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume is a (a) fluid (b) solid (c) liquid (d) gas
"Girdling" is a term that refers to removing the bark of a tree in a complete ring around the trunk or a branch. Predict the effect that girdling will have on a tree. Explain.
Give two examples of how the human body shows the living characteristic of organization.
How are lamprey's and sharks similar? How are they different?