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Biology Chapter 9
Terms in this set (42)
List five ways in which scientists study and manipulate DNA.
1) restriction enzymes, 2) gel electrophoresis, 3) restriction maps, 4) recombination, 5) Polymerase chain reaction
enzymes that cut DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences
the nucleotide sequence at which a restriction enzyme cuts DNA
Why would different restriction enzymes cut the same DNA molecule into different numbers of fragments?
some cuts are made straight across the two strands of DNA (blunt ends), other cuts are staggered and leave tails of free DNA bases (sticky)
cuts made by restriction enzymes that are straight across
cuts made by restriction enzymes that leave tails of free DNA bases
After DNA is cut with a restriction enzyme, how is the mixture of DNA fragments sorted?
sorted by size through the process Gel Electrophoresis
after siting in a electric bowl of water, DNA spreads out on the gel with long pieces of DNA at the top and short pieces on the bottom; electricity carries DNA down the gel
How do different fragments of DNA show up on a gel?
long DNA fragments at the top short at the bottom
Restriction Map give about DNA? What information is not given by a restriction map? How are restriction maps used?
show the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites in a strand of DNA
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique that produces copies of specific DNA sequences
Why is PCR useful?
it amplifies DNA samples
What is the process of PCR?
separating, binding, and copying
What four materials are needed for PCR?
1) DNA to be copied, 2) DNA polymerase, 3) A & T, C & G nucleotides, 4) two primers
Why are primers needed in the PCR process?
they bind to each DNA strand on opposite ends of the sequence for the segment to be copied
a type of restriction map; a representation of part of an individual's DNA that can be used to identify a person at a molecular level
What does a DNA fingerprint show?
focuses on non-coded regions of DNA sequences outsides genes
How is a DNA fingerprint made?
it is made by imprinting the banding pattern on a gel
What is a DNA fingerprint based on?
based on noncoding regions of DNA
How is a DNA fingerprint a specific type of restriction map?
because numbers of repeated noncoding regions differ between people
How does identification through DNA fingerprinting depend on probability?
because the specific nucleotide sequences that are repeated can be found in everyone; usually DNA compares 5 regions to decrease likelihood of two people with same DNA
List two ways in which DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.
1) evidence in criminal cases, 2) paternity tests, 3) immigration requests, 4) study of biodiversity, 5) tracking genetically, 6) GMOs
a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism
Cloning in Nature
How can DNA microarrays compare gene expression in different cells?
Gene therapy (example)
one experimental method for the treatment of cancer
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