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an animal with a backbone


an animal that cannot regulate its own body temperature, it must depend on the temperature outside its body


an animal that generates its own body heat and controls its body temperature from within


strong connective tissue that supports the body and is softer and more flexible than bone


the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past

sedimentary rock

a type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together


an ectothermic animal that lives in water, breathes oxygen through gills, and has fins for swimming

bony fish

fish that have bony skeletons, paired fins, scales, jaws, and some have teeth; goldfish and salmon are examples

jawless fish

fish that have round suction cup mouths, rasping tongues, some have teeth, no scales, and they suck body fluids from other animals

Cartilaginous fish

sharks, rays, and skates; fish that have carilaginous skeletons, jaws and teeth, all are carnivores

swim bladder

a small sac in a bony fish that can be inflated with air to help a fish swim at shallower depths, or deflated to help the fish sink to deeper water

buoyant force

the force that water pushed up on any object under water


an ectothermic vertebrate that starts life in the water, lives in water during a larval stage, then undergoes a metapmorphosis to be able ot live its adulthood on land


an upper chamber of an amphibian or reptile heart


the lower chamber in an amphibian or reptile heart


the place where an organism lives and can get all the things they need to survive


an ectothermic vertebrate that lays eggs and has lungs and scaly skin


fluid wastes removed from the body, made by the kidneys

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