College American History ch.13&14

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Terms in this set (...)

Deists
People who believed in God but give him no active role in earthly affairs; believed that a benevolent, all-knowing God had designed the universe and set it in motion, but didn't believe that God directly intercedes in the functioning of the universe. Enlightenment thought applied to religion; emphasized reason, morality, and natural law.
Unitarianism
Late eighteenth century liberal offshoot of the New England Congregationalist church; It professed the oneness of God and the goodness of rational man.
Circuit Rider
Traveling ministers who rode horseback over regular routes and preached messages of religious revival during the Second Great Awakening.
Camp Meetings
Frontier religious revivals during the 2nd Great Awakening; hundreds or thousands of people—often members of various denominations—met at these meetings to hear speeches on repentance and to sing hymns.
Joseph Smith
(1805-1844) In 1823, he claimed that the Angel Moroni showed him the location of several gold tablets on which the Book of Mormon was written. Using the Book of Mormon as his gospel, he founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, or Mormons. Joseph and his followers upset non-Mormons living near them so they began looking for a refuge from persecution. In 1839, they settled in Commerce, Illinois, which they renamed Nauvoo. In 1844, Joseph and his brother were arrested and jailed for ordering the destruction of a newspaper that opposed them. While in jail, an anti-Mormon mob stormed the jail and killed both of them.
Brigham Young
(1801-1877) Following Joseph Smith's death, he became the leader of the Mormons and promised Illinois officials that the Mormons would leave the state. In 1846, he led the Mormons to Utah and settled near the Salt Lake. After the United States gained Utah as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, he became the governor of the territory and kept the Mormons virtually independent of federal authority.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
(1803-1882) As a leader of the transcendentalist movement, he wrote poems, essays, and speeches that discussed the sacredness of nature, optimism, self-reliance, and the unlimited potential of the individual. He wanted to transcend the limitations of inherited conventions and rationalism to reach the inner recesses of the self.
Public Education
Between 1830-1850, many northern states opened free public schools. Education allowed kids more chances. (Leaders; Horace Mann)
Dorothea Dix
(1802-1887) She was an important figure in increasing the public's awareness of the plight of the mentally ill. After a two-year investigation of the treatment of the mentally ill in Massachusetts, she presented her findings and won the support of leading reformers. She eventually convinced twenty states to reform their treatment of the mentally ill.
Seneca Falls Convention
First women's rights meeting and the genisis of the women's suffrage movement; held in July 1848 in a church in Seneca Falls, New York, by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Coffin Mott.
William Lloyd Garrison
(1805-1879) In 1831, he started the anti-slavery newspaper Liberator and helped start the New England Anti-Slavery Society. Two years later, he assisted Arthur and Lewis Tappan in the founding of the American Anti-Slavery Society. He and his followers believed that America had been thoroughly corrupted and needed a wide rage of pacifism, and women's rights. He wanted to go beyond just freeing slaves and grant them equal social and legal rights.
Frederick Douglass
(1818-1895) He escaped from slavery and became an eloquent speaker and writer against slavery. In 1845, he published his autobiography entitled Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass and two years later he founded an abolitionist newspaper for blacks called the North Star.
Horace Mann
(1796-1859) He believed the public school system was the best way to achieve social stability and equal opportunity. As a reformer of education, he sponsored a state board of education, the first state-supported "normal" school for training teachers, a state association for teachers, the minimum school year of six months, and led the drive for a statewide school system.
John Calhoun
(1782-1850) He served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate for South Carolina before becoming secretary of war under President Monroe and then John Quincy Adams's Vice President. He introduced the bill for the second national bank to Congress and led the minority of southerners who voted for the Tariff of 1816. However, he later chose to oppose tariffs. During his time as secretary of war under President Monroe, he authorized the use of federal troops against the Seminoles who were attacking settlers. As John Quincy Adams VP, he supported a new tariffs bill to win presidential candidate Andrew Jackson additional support. Jackson won the election, but the new tariffs bill passed and Calhoun had to explain why he had changed his opinion on tariffs.
Immanuel Kant
(1724-1804) a German Enlightenment philosopher; he wrote the Critique of Pure Reason, believed in uniting reason with experience, that the mind is a filter, that we experience things simply through our senses, and that reason is the source of morality; he was particularly prolific in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics.
Francis Asbury
He was an influential speaker who went around America and preached Methodism. He was anti-Deist and was part of the Second Great Awakening. Methodist evangelist who was sent to establish churches and Bible studies on the frontier; established circuit-riding preachers.
John H. Noyes
An American Utopian socialist. He founded the Oneida Community in 1848. He coined the term "free love"- new doctrine announced about "complex marriage" which meant that every man in the community was married to every woman and vice versa.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) She was a prominent reformer and advocator for the rights of women, and she helped organize the Seneca Falls Convention to discuss women's rights. The convention was the first of its kind and produced the Declaration of Sentiments, which proclaimed the equality of men and women.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(1848) treaty signed by the U.S. and Mexico that officially ended the Mexican-American War; Mexico had to give up much of its northern territory to the U.S; California, Utah, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Wyoming, and Arizona (Mexican Cession); in exchange the U.S. gave Mexico $15 million and said that Mexicans living in the lands of the Mexican Cession would be protected.
William Henry Harrison
(1773-1841): Hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe and ninth president of the United States. Harrison, a Whig, won the 1840 election on a "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign, which played up his credentials as a backwoods westerner and Indian fighter. Harrison died of pneumonia just four weeks after his inauguration.
John Tyler
Elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died 1841-1845, President responsible for annexation of Mexico after receiving mandate from Polk, opposed many parts of the Whig program for economic recovery
"Manifest Destiny"
Imperialist phrase first used in 1845 to urge annexation of Texas; used thereafter to encourage American settlement of European colonial and Indian lands in the Great Plains and Far West.
Mountain Men
Inspired by the fur trade, these men left civilization to work as trappers and reverted to a primitive existence in the wilderness. They were the first whites to find routes through the Rocky Mountains, and they pioneered trails that settlers later used to reach the Oregon country and California in the 1840s.
Convention of 1818
A manifestation of President Monroe's "diplomatic nationalism." This group resolved several points of contention. It: established the northern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase along the 49th parallel from the Lake of the Woods to the crest of the Rocky Mountains; called for joint occupation of Oregon by the United States and Britain; acknowledged American fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Texas 1821
Spain offered land to Americans to settle in Texas Area. Mexico won their independence from Spain and laws changed; Mexican War of Independence - no more slavery, Mexico free from Spain.
Stephen F. Austin
(1793-1836) He established the first colony of Americans in Texas, which eventually attracted 2,000 people.
Battle of Alamo
Siege in the Texas War for Independence of 1836, in which the San Antonio mission fell to the Mexicans. Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie were among the courageous defenders.
Sam Houston
(1793-1863) During Texas's fight for independence from Mexico, He was the commander in chief of the Texas forces, and he led the attack that captured General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. After Texas gained its independence, he was named its first president.
Zachary Taylor
(1784-1850) During the Mexican War, he scored two quick victories against Mexico, which made him very popular in America. President Polk chose him as the commander in charge of the war. However, after he was not put in charge of the campaign to capture Mexico City, he chose to return home. Later he used his popularity from his military victories to be elected the president as a member of the Whig party. Zachary Taylor was a general during the Mexican War. President James K. Polk chose him to be the commander in charge of the war. When Polk did not put him in charge of the campaign to capture Mexico City, he returned home to Louisiana. Later he decided to run for president and won. While in office, he worked toward the abolition of slavery. He encouraged the states of California and New Mexico to draft constitutions and apply for statehood, knowing that both states would become Free states. He was right, and this made the southern states angry with him, because they viewed this as his betrayal of them. Taylor died of Cholera Morbus after only 16 months in office. His successor was his Vice President Millard Fillmore.
Mexican War
(1846-1848) John C. Fremont won battles on land & sea by California; Zachary Tyalor defeated large forces in Mexico; Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo (1848) ended the war & the US got huge territories in the west, borders set at Rio Grande; Raised questions of slavery in the new territories.
Daniel Webster
(1782-1852) As a representative from New Hampshire, he led the New Federalists in opposition to the moving of the second national bank from Boston to Philadelphia. Later, he served as representative and a senator for Massachusetts and emerged as a champion of a stronger national government. He also switched from opposing to supporting tariffs because New England had built up its manufactures with the understanding tariffs would protect them from foreign competitors.
William B. Travis
He took complete command of the Alamo garrison when his co-comander became ill and was responsible for slowing Santa Anna's march through Texas
Robert F. Stockton
Before the end of July, a new navy commodore, led the American occupation of Santa Barbara and Los Angeles, on the California coast. By mid-August, Mexican resistance had evaporated. On August 17, He declared himself governor, with John C. Fremont as military governor in the north. In southern California, General Stephen Kearny and his 1,600 troops met up with Stockton's forces at San Diego and joined them in the conquest of southern California. They entered Los Angeles on January 10, 1847. Mexican forces capitulated three days later.
Winfield Scott
(1786-1866) During the Mexican War, he was the American general who captured Mexico City, which ended the war. Using his popularity from his military success, he ran as a Whig party candidate for President.
John C. Fremont
"The Pathfinder" (1813-1890) He was an explorer and surveyor who helped inspire Americans living in California to rebel against the Mexican government and declare independence. Arrested for refusing to transfer his title of military governor and eventually convicted of mutiny. President Polk, however, commuted his sentence of a dishonorable discharge, but he elected to resign anyway.
James K. Polk
"Young Hickory" (1795-1849) As president, his chief concern was the expansion of the United States. In 1846, his administration resolved the dispute with Britain over the Oregon Country border. Shortly after taking office, Mexico broke off relations with the United States over the annexation of Texas. Polk declared war on Mexico and sought to subvert Mexican authority in California. The United States defeated Mexico; and the two nations signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which Mexico gave up any claims on Texas north of the Rio Grande River and ceded New Mexico and California to the United States.
Abe Lincoln
(1809-1865) His participation in the Lincoln-Douglas debates gave him a national reputation and he was nominated as the Republican party candidate for president in 1860. Shortly after he was elected president, southern states began succeeding from the Union and in April of 1861 he declared war on the succeeding states. On January 1, 1863, Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves. At the end of the war, he favored a reconstruction strategy for the former Confederate states that did not radically alter southern social and economic life. However, before his plans could be finalized, John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln at Ford's Theater on April 14, 1865.
"Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"
An aggressive slogan adopted in the Oregon boundary dispute, a dispute over where the border between Canada and Oregon should be drawn. This was also Polk's slogan - the Democrats wanted the U.S. border drawn at the 54º40' latitude. Polk settled for the 49º latitude in 1846.
Manifest Destiny is the belief that US should extend itself from the Atlantic to the Pacific and beyond. Some people called it the white man's burden. It offered a moral justification for territorial expansion, a prescription for what an enlarged United States could and should be. At worst it was a cluster of flimsy rationalizations for naked greed and imperial ambition.
Explain the phrase "manifest destiny." What factors were most important in drawing Americans to the West, both mentally and physically?
The reason it took so long was because of the problem with the extension of slavery and the war with Mexico.
Discuss the American movement to annex Texas between 1820 and 1845. Why did it take so long for annexation to succeed?
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Why were many Americans opposed to the Mexican War? How significant were the oppositions?
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Discuss the various Indian cultures throughout the West prior to the Civil War.
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What were the various roles of the California mission? Describe life at these missions and the impact they had throughout the territory.
p.399-401
Describe the various trends in the rise of education (public, private, and higher) during this period.
p.401-402
Detail the rise of the temperance movement in American society. What was the outcome of this movement's efforts?
p.411-413
Evaluate the black abolitionist movement. Who were some of the major leaders, and what methods did they use to promote their cause?
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Describe the southern defense of slavery before and after 1830.
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How did this change affect the intellectual life of the Old South?
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