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Micro hr exam 3 review
Terms in this set (106)
Know the diseases produced by Staphylococci
Group C and G:Toxigenic disease, food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome,skin infections pneumonia, arthritis , osteomyelitis, respiratory infections, abscesses endocarditis and meningitis
Group F: bacteremia and abscesses
- strep sore throat, rheumatic fever ,and golmerulonephritis
Catalase tests are positive for
Which tests are used to distinguish Staph from Micrococci
Staph is tolerant
Micrococci is intolerant
Which test are used to distinguish S. aureus from S. epidermidis and S. saprophyticus
S. aureus +
S. epidermitis and S. saprophyticus are -
Which type of coagulase do we test for in the tube test?
free or extracellular coagulase
slide test is for -bound coagulase
Stomatococcus mucilaginosus are gram positive cocci arranged in_________
They are weakly_________ ________and produce____a
pairs or clusters.
catalase positive ______capsule.
What is the Novobiocin susceptibility test used for.
identify Staph saprophyticus is Resistant(R)
Staph epidermitis is Susceptable (S)
Lab manual unit 6
What are the virulence factors of Streptococci?
Produce a capsule (strep pneumonia)
Know species name for Group A and diseases it produces.
*Streptococcus pyogenes strep throat tonsillitis scarlet fever and wound infections
*untreated rheumatic heart disease or acute glomerulonephritis
Know species name for Group B and diseases it produces.
Streptococcus agalactiae-associated with stillbirth neonatal infections like meningitis , septicemia and pneumonia
postpartum innfections like bacteremia and endometritis and nosocomial invasive disease in nonpregnant adults
Know species name for Group C,G and diseases it produces.
Group C or G streptococcus - pharyngitis skin and soft tissue infections, toxic shock like syndrome bacteremia arthritis osteomyelitis, respiratory infections , abscesses, endocarditis and meningitis
Know species name for Group D and diseases it produces.
Group D streptococcus or S. galloyticus (S. bovis)- normal flora in gastrointestinal system . from this site canspread to bloodstream to cause infections like bacteremia and endocarditis
Know species name for Group F and diseases it produces.
Group F Streptococcus -bacteremia and abscesses
Know species name for Viridans group and diseases it produces.
Viridans streptococci- endocarditis bactermia and meningitis, gingivitis and dental caries
Nutritionally variant Streptococci require the presence of certain compounds in the culture media. What will provide these nutrients?
Staph streak on blood agar
What are enterococci and what diseases do the produce?
faculative anerobes , gram pos cocci in chains, normal flora of the intestinal tract, associated with community acquired UTI, nosocomial wound and soft tissue infections, bacteriamia and endocarditis
Strep. pneumonia cause what diseased?
community acquired pneumonia.
Know the reactions which identify each group of Streptococci and Enterococci. Also know the principles of each test
Lab manual Unit 7
AEROBIC GRAM-POSITIVE BACILLI CH-19
Know the diseases produced by Bacillus
SPORE FORMING bacilli (rods)
B. anthracis- Anthrax : death due to septicemia toxemia or pulmonary complications 1-7 days after exposure
B. cereus- sporadic cause of food poinioning, local infections such as postsurgical wound, burn, and eye infections
compromised patients: meningitis, cactermia septicemia endocarditis and ostemyelitis, rare pneumonia
Know the diseases produced by Listeria
non-spore forming bacilli
motile at room temperature
neonatal meningitis and sepsis; sepsis in immunocompromised hosts cold temps umbrella motility kill babies in utero when mother eats dairy or processed meat or veggies not exposed to heat
Know the diseases produced by Erysipelothrix
occupational infection for fishermen, butchers, veterinarians and rose growers
non-spore forming bacilli
Know the diseases produced by Corynebacterium
non-spore forming IRREGULAR bacilli absorbed diphtheria toxin has a systemic effect on the kidney, heart and nervous system, cardiac failure, paralysis
Know the diseases produced by Nocardia
modified acid-fast positive immunocompromised, respiratory infections, skin infections lymphocuraneous , mycetoma
Know how to distinguish B. anthracis from B. cerus.
Know the lab identification of Erysipelothrix
Know the growth requirements and media used to cultivate the Corynebacteria
Loeffler's medium containing egg and serum for optimum growth- enhances the development of metachromatic granules
Tinsdale- selective and non-selective culture media containing tellurite - black colonies due to tellurite hydrolysis
Know thew colonial morphology of C. diptheriae growing on Tinsdale agar.
black colonies due to tellurite hydrolysis
These organisms will demonstrate metachromatic granules when smeared on a slide and stained with methylene blue
What is the definitive diagnostic test to determine the presence of toxin-producing strains of C. diptheriae
What type of motility is exhibited by Listeria monocytogenes at room temperature of a staph inoculation?
Positive motility, umbrella growth
ANAEROBIC BACTERIA CH-24
Know the terms used to describe the oxygen requirements of bacteria.
bacteria tha t required O2; formation of H2O and energy not by fermentation
cannot grow on agar exposed to O2
shows limited growth on agar in room air or in 5% to 10% CO2. Aerotolerant organisms are strictly fermentative
can grow under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions ; can be oxidative or fermentative
requires O2 but will not grow on surface of media in aerobic incubator and grows minimally if at all, anaerobically
Know the gram reaction and morphology of genera of anaerobic bacteria discussed in class
Know the names of the disease produced by these anaerobes
Know the names of the systems of cultivation for anerobes
Culture of Clostridium perfringens produc a ___ ____ of hemolysis on ____ _____ _____.
anaerobic blood agar
fermentation of glucose, lactose, mannitol, and rhamose differentiate it from other Actinomyces
sulfur granules observed on microscopic examination of gram stain of clinical specimen.
molar tooth growth of brain-heart infusion agar
What type of specimens are acceptable for anaerobic cultivation and which are not.
What is the correct atmospheric condition for anaerobes?
80-90% nitrogen %5 hydrogen %-10% carbondioxide
ID of anaerobes (Discussed in Class!) Gram reaction , morphology, colonial morphology and any biochemical tests mentioned in class
Lab manual Unit 9
ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING CH-11
Know the standardized procedure for the Kirby-Bauer test
What is MIC?
minimum inhibitory concentration
What is the advantage over Kirby Bauer
the MIC detects varying degrees of organism sensitivity and resistance STANDARDIZATION
Lab manual unit 10
all are acid fast and appear as dry heaped colonies when grown on solid media.
What are the types of media to cultivate Mycobacteria
eggs,flour, glycerol and salts with dye- controls overgrowth of contaminating bacteria
American Thoracic Society (ATS)- use with setrile fluids
Middlebrook 7 H9,10, or 11- isolation and susceptibility
What are the biochemical tests used to differentiate species of mycobacteria?
Niacin accumulation (M. tuberculosis)
Nitrate reduction (M. tuberculosis reduce
Catalase- most produce catalase
Thiophene 2 carboxylic acid- differentiates M tuberculosis from others
Urease- growth in 5% NaCl,iron uptake , growth on MacConkey
What is the name of the mycolytic agent?
What does the term photochromogen refer to?
produce pigment only after exposure to light
What are the recommended staining procedures for mycobacteria?
The identification of the most common Mycobacteria isolaates can be rapidly performed (within 2 weeks) using
Middlebrook broth and nucleic acid probes
Lab manual- Unit 8
SPIROCHETAL INFECTIONS CH-25
Know the names of the diseases produced by Treponema.
Know the names of the diseases produced by Borrelia.
relapsing fever, (lice borne)
Lyme disease- (tick borne)
Know the names of the diseases produced by Leptospira.
How are the diseasese produced by Borrelia transmitted to humans?
Lyme disease , tick borne
The diagnosis of spirochetal infections diseases is usually made by serologic tests. Know the names of these tests. (only those mentioned in class)
Non-treponimal (screening test)- VDRL- venereal disease research laboratory and RPR- rapid plasma reagin test
treponimal (measure antibody to antigen)- microhemogllutination test
FTA_ ABS (fluorescent trep. AB)
MYCOPLASMAS AND UREAPLASMAS CH-28
What diseases are produced by the genera Mycoplasmas and Ureaplasmas ?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae-atypical pneumonia
Mycoplasma homminis- genetal tract infection
Ureaplasma urealyticum- respiratory tract of new born
How does Mycoplasma and Urea plasma differ from all other bacteria
lack a cell wall
have only a cell membrane
What are the nutritional requirements of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma organisms? Media used = methylene blue- glucose diphasic
35-37 degree C, atmosphere
Mycoplasma- 95% Nitrogen 5% CO2
Ureaplasma- 80% Nitrogen 10% CO2
What key biochemical test is used to distinguish between the two genera ofUreaplasma and Mycoplasma?
Ureaplasma colonies can be identified to genus level by their granular brown apparance on A8 agar
Utilization of glucose, Urea and arginine. hydroylsis in in 10B broth alkaline color change that occurs after overnight incubation w/o turbidity containing urea is almost certain to contain Ureaplasma spp.
___ _____ _____ is used to identify Mycoplasma pneumoniae directly from respiratory tract specimens
Nucleic acid probe
Know the identification of M. hominis vs U. urealytium colonies from genital tract cultures.
M. hominis -Tetracycline; resistant to erythromycin (all other Mycoplasma are sensitive
Ureaplasma urealyticuum- produce urease
Treat with tetracycline or spectinomycin
An organism which is capable of producing energy through aerobic respiration and then switching back to anaerobic respiration depending on the amounts of oxygen and fermentable material in the environment.
Some examples of facultative anaerobic bacteria are the Staphylococci (Gram positive), Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corynebacterium (Gram positive), and Listeria (Gram positive). Organisms in the Kingdom Fungi can also be facultative anaerobic, such as yeasts.
An anaerobe that does not require oxygen and lives only in anaerobic environment.
An organism that lives in environment that only has a low level of oxygen.
An anaerobic organism capable of surviving or growing despite the presence of oxygen.
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