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Chapter 7: The Assessment of Intelligence
Terms in this set (37)
a research speciality that evaluates both genetic and environmental influences on the development of behavior
what we commonly refer to as age; years of life
Concordance rate (or similarity index)
an index of similarity between individuals. The simplest form of concordance rate is the percentage of instances in which two individuals exhibit similar behaviors or characteristics.
the extent to which test scores correlate with scores on other relevant measures administered at the same time
the extent to which test scores correlate with other measures or behaviors in a logical and theoretically consistent way. Construct validity requires a demonstration of all aspects of validity
the degree to which test items adequate measure all aspects of the construct of interest
one of two higher-order factors of intelligence conceived by Cattell. Crystallized ability refers to the intellectual capacities obtained through culture based learning.
a concept introduced by Wechsler to address problems observed when applying the ratio IQ to older individuals. An individual's performance on an IQ test is compared to that of her or his age peers
Dizygotic (DZ) twins
fraternal twins, or twins that share about 50% of their genetic material
Equivalent forms reliability
the extent to which an individual obtains similar scores on equivalent, or parallel, forms of the same test
one of two higher-order factors of intelligence conceived by Cattell. Fluid ability refers to a person's genetically based intellectual capacity
this refers to the empirical finding that Americans' IQ scores have on average increased 3 points each decade since 1972
the term introduced by Charles Spearman to describe his concept of a general intelligence
the genetic makeup of an individual
scores that correspond to the major ability factors that underlie the WAIS-IV subtest scores (i.e., verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed)
There is no universally accepted definition of intelligence. However many definitions of intelligence emphasize the ability to think abstractly, the ability to learn, and the ability to adapt to the environment.
a term developed by Sterin 1938 to address problems with using the difference between chronological age and mental age to represent deviance. Typically, a deviation IQ score is used
Internal consistency reliability
the extent to which the items of a test "hang together" (most often assessed by computing Cronbach's alpha)
Interrater (or interjudge) reliability
the level of agreement between two or more raters who have evaluated the same individual independently. Agreement can refer to consensus on behaviors, attributes, and so on
a term introduced by Binet as an index of mental performance. This idea was based on the notion that individuals of a certain age should have mastered certain abilities.
Monozygotic (MZ) twins
identical twins, or twins that share 100% of their genetic material
Phenotype: the observable characteristics of an individual. The phenotype is a product of both the genotype and the environment
the extent to which test scores correlate with scores on other relevant measures administered at some point in the future
Primary mental abilities
seven factors of intelligence derived by Thurstone on the basis of his factor analytics work: number, word fluency, verbal meaning, perceptual speed, space, reasoning, and memory
a feature on several subtests of the WAIS-III that allows the examiner to determine the examinee's ability level without having to administer items markedly below that ability level
the extent to which an individual's scores on one half of a test (e.g., the even-numbered items) are similar to his or her scores on the other half (e.g., the odd-numbered items)
Stability of IQ scores
the similarity of IQ scores measured at different points in time. Based on test-retest correlations, IQ scores tend to be less table for young children than for adults.
Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB-5)
an intelligence test based on a hierarchical model of intelligence. The SB-5 measures five general cognitive factors (fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and knowledge,) each of which includes both verbal and non-verbal subtest activities.
Structure of the intellect model
a model proposed and tested by Guilford which asserts that the components of intelligence may be organized into three dimensions: operations (e.g., memory), contents (e.g., symbolic,) and products (e.g., relations). In Guilford's model, a particular mental operation is applied to a specific type of content, resulting in a product.
the extent to which an individual makes similar responses to the same test stimuli on repeated occasions
Theory of multiple intelligences
a theory forwarded by Gardner that posits the existence of six intelligences: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal
Triarchic theory of intelligence
a theory proposed by Sternberg which maintains that people function on the basis of three aspects of intelligence: componential (analytical thinking,) experiential (creative thinking,) and contextual ("street smarts," or the ability to successfully manipulate one's environment)
Twins reared apart
MZ or DZ twins separated from each other shortly after birth; such twins share genetic material but not specific environmental influences.
Twins reared together
MZ or DZ twins reared in the same family environment, such twins share both genetic material and specific environmental influences. Comparing the concordance rates of twins reared apart and twins reared together can help tease apart the genetic and environmental influences on a particular behavior or characteristic.
the extent to which an assessment technique measures what it is supposed to measure. There are several forms of validity.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)
an adult intelligence test comprised of subtests that tap four areas of cognitive functioning: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. The WAIS-IV yields a Full Scale IQ, in addition to Index scores for these four areas.
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV)
an intelligence test designed for children between the ages of 6 and 16. The WISC-IV scores include the Verbal Comprehension Index, Perceptual Reasoning Index, Working Memory Index, Processing Speed Index, and Full Scale IQ
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition (WPPSI-III)
an intelligence test designed for children between the ages of 2 years, 6 months and 7 years, 3 months. The WPPSI-III scores include the verbal IQ, performance IQ, processing speed, and full scale IQ
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