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CH 6: Culture, Media and Communication
Terms in this set (69)
First, culture is a characteristic not of individuals but of groups.
Second, culture is a way of understanding differences between groups and similarities within groups.
Last, culture is an aspect of social life that is different from nature or biology.
Culture's Three Parts
1. a shared system of beliefs and knowledge, more commonly called a system of meaning and symbols
2. a set of values, beliefs, and practices
3. a shared forms of communication
communicate an idea while being distinct from the idea itself
always exist in specific social contexts
Judgments about what is intrinsically important or meaningful—such as patriotism, competitiveness, and consumerism.
Pierre Bourdieu developed an analysis of how culture works
Bourdieu argued that we all develop certain sets of assumptions about the world and our place in it: our tastes, preferences, and skills. We also develop habits—what Bourdieu called HABITUS—in the course of growing up and socializing with others that become so routine we don't even realize we are following them
past affects future choices
a set of ideas and skills that we learn through the cultural environment we live in and apply to practical situations in our own lives
Culture does not just establish differences in how we interpret the world and give it meaning but rather influences what kinds of strategies and actions are practically available to us.
refers to any comprehensive system of words or symbols representing concepts, and it does not necessarily need to be spoken, as the hundreds of different sign languages in use around the world suggest
a cultural trait common to all humans
Communication within society as a whole through the mass media (television, Internet, newspapers, radio) as opposed to between individuals.
The social, economic, and cultural gap between those with effective access to information technology and those without such access.
How did European scientists and writers in the nineteenth century attempt to make sense of the differences in the appearance and behavior they observed between themselves and non-Europeans?
They concluded that differences in behavior were biological and claimed that people's biology determined how their societies were organized.
Which of the following is one of anthropologist Clifford Geertz's conclusions about Balinese cockfighting?
Betting on cockfights is a means by which people express and interpret status hierarchies.
Which of the following terms refers to a set of assumptions, tastes, preferences, and skills people have based on their social location?
Which of the following concepts describes the gap between those who have effective access to information technology and those who do not?
Which of the following refers to a comprehensive system of symbols, which represent concepts?
the set of norms and practices that distinguishes one group from another
the most widely shared systems of meaning and cultural tool kits in a society—is expressed in the activities and norms of many groups.
relatively small groups of people whose affiliation is based on shared beliefs, preferences, and practices that exist under the mainstream (literally subcultures) and distinguish them from the mainstream
a group whose ideas, attitudes, and behaviors are in direct conflict with mainstream culture and who actively contest the dominant cultural practices in the societies of which they are a part
Widely shared beliefs about what is right or wrong that legitimize and empower a society's elites.
beliefs or policies promoting the equal accommodation of different ethnic or cultural groups within a society
evaluating cultural meanings and practices in their own social contexts—is central to the sociological imagination
the set of shared cultural practices and beliefs within a given nation-state, is an important principle for sociology
the fact that people think of themselves as inherently members of a nation and often take pride in that identity—is a relatively recent phenomenon in world history.
A sociologist who studies culture tells you she is interested in studying the most widely shared tool kits within a society. In fact, she is most interested in tool kits that the majority of people within a given society rely on and use in their lives and which are so common most people take them for granted. To which of the following types of culture is the sociologist most likely referring?
What do the Tea Party and the Black Lives Matter movements have in common?
They are both challenging the mainstream culture.
Which of the following terms describes the efforts of an American sociologist who attempts to understand Japanese family systems from the standpoint of the Japanese people who grew up in those family systems, rather than from the standpoint of Americans?
__________ was a popular term used to refer to the political conflicts in the United States over moral issues, such as abortion and gay rights.
Print capitalism made __________ possible by allowing people to imagine themselves as part of a single, coherent community.
a national culture
This is your education, tastes, and cultural knowledge and your ability to display sophistication (or a lack thereof) in your speech, manners, and other everyday acts.
Bourdieu argued that your cultural capital, as much as your wealth or connections, confers on you higher or lower status in the eyes of others
demonstrate their high status through a broad range of cultural consumption, including low-status culture.
the process that cause class boundaries and distinctions to be maintained over time
Barbara went to a business dinner, and unlike her colleagues who simply placed orders for "red" wine, Barbara requested a bottle of pinot noir, indicating that she had preferences regarding the different types of grapes used to make wine. In this example, Barbara demonstrated a particular kind of
Class __________ refers to the processes that cause class boundaries and distinctions to be maintained over time.
Which of the following conclusions did sociologist Annette Lareau draw regarding the different childrearing practices of middle- and working-class parents?
Middle-class parents actively foster their children's talents and instill in them a sense of entitlement, whereas working-class parents follow an approach of accomplishment of natural growth and instill in them a sense of constraint.
Your friend Jerry brags that he often enjoys going to a cheap burger joint for dinner just as much as going to an expensive French restaurant. He also admits that he is an avid reader of cheap romance novels as well as literary masterpieces such as War and Peace. How do sociologists characterize people such as Jerry?
Jerry is a cultural omnivore.
Pierre Bourdieu's concept of __________ helps explain how boundaries between social classes get maintained.
A social space—physical, virtual, or theoretical—where private citizens can come together as a public body to discuss and express opinions about matters of general interest.
alternative public spheres through which they produce and circulate their own values, beliefs, and ideas
an online public sphere
attract participation from teenagers in particular because of things they offer that face-to-face public settings cannot
The production for profit of popular music, movies, books, television, social media, and other types of mass-culture products by capitalist enterprises.
Clair explains that in eighteenth-century Europe people used to congregate in coffee shops and pubs to discuss and formulate rational conclusions about the issues of the time. What kind of space is Clair describing?
When the ideal of equal participation cannot be achieved, subordinated social groups have frequently responded by creating their own
Rather than participating in the creation of new information, Ken is sitting in front of his television passively consuming it. What would German sociologist and philosopher Theodor Adorno most likely say about this scenario?
This is a problem associated with the modern culture industry.
Which of the following concepts refers to the idea that popular culture is user driven, and that cultural producers are always seeking to tailor their art to reflect popular preferences?
Which of the following best describes what media theorist Marshall McLuhan meant by the statement "The medium is the message"?
Different kinds of media (such as the Internet or TV or literature) tend to produce different images of the same issue or topic.
Three trends in the U.S. media landscape have put commercial pressure on journalism.
The first is consolidation. Fewer and fewer corporations own more and more of the media outlets in a given market. Consolidation limits consumer choice.
A second trend is conglomeration, which describes a firm controlling multiple types of media functions.
The final trend is hypercommercialism. It has long been standard for movies to feature some sort of product placement—advertising where shots or mentions of a product are integrated into the movie itself as opposed to a separate ad.
Which of the following describes what media scholar Michael Schudson meant by the idea that media act as a cultural system?
Media influence people's thoughts and behaviors by establishing a context, which makes world events intelligible.
Which of the following is a trend discussed in the chapter that has put commercial pressure on journalism?
corporatization and consolidation of media
A documentary film contains a lot of corporate logos. The filmmaker, who appeared on camera to conduct interviews, drove a Toyota car and used an iPhone throughout the film. Which of the following concepts describes the inclusion of commercial products and logos in this film?
A corporation owns a cable company, a number of radio stations, and numerous websites. When it launched a new television network, all the corporation's media outlets advertised the new network and broadcast positive reviews of it. This is an example of __________.
What is one of the impacts of media consolidation on democracy?
Media consolidation leads to less local staffing, less local news gathering, and less interaction with local communities, which hinders democracy.
Something that communicates an idea while being distinct from the idea itself is known as a(n) __________.
Which of the following is the best explanation of the idea that culture is like a tool kit?
A cultural tool kit is a bundle of ideas and values people can draw upon in order to formulate solutions for the problems they confront.
Which of the following terms describes a new form of Internet-centered communication that is generated and broadcast by ordinary people but is still capable of reaching a global audience?
A group of artists comes to distinguish itself from how most people dress and act. Members of the group always wear black. Women wear heavy, pale makeup, and both men and women have multiple piercings. The artists are devoted to discussing and creating art and music about death. What is a term sociologists would most likely use to describe
Many people have called the description of the United States as a giant melting pot an example of __________. Their concern is that the metaphor suggests the country should only accept immigrants who are like the people already living in the country.
The education, attitudes, knowledge, and preferences by which others judge you constitute your __________.
Cultural experiences that everyone can share __________ the basis for __________.
cannot be; status distinctions
What is the name given to the approach to childrearing that actively fosters children's talents?
Which of the following refers to the virtual or physical space where members of a social movement congregate and exchange critical ideas about how the government can work more effectively
Which of the following summarizes what Theodor Adorno referred to as the culture industry?
The culture industry refers to the profit-driven production of popular media within a capitalist society.
Which of the following is explored in the chapter as a way in which the Internet has created a new opportunity for a better democracy?
The Internet has made it less costly and far easier for average people to acquire information and participate in public discussions of important issues in their lives.
The CEO of General Motors testified before Congress in the early 1950s and famously declared, "What is good for General Motors is good for America." This claim—that everyone has an interest in the profitability of a large company (General Motors was at the time the largest corporation in the world)—reflects which of the following concepts?
What is the name given to the approach to childrearing that involves parents caring for their children but leaving them to fend for themselves socially?
accomplishment of natural growth
Which of the following terms describes fewer and fewer corporations owning more and more of the media outlets in a given media market?
__________ serves as a way for people to communicate belonging by demonstrating familiarity with shared assumptions about correct behavior.
This set is often in folders with...
CH 3: Studying the Social World
CH 4: Social Interaction
CH 5: Social Structure
EXAM 1 VOCAB
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