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Biology Midterm 1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (79)
List and describe the characteristics of life
cells; organization; reproduction; growth; response to environment/adaptation; energy use
Define homeostasis and relate it to life
Homeostasis is any self-regulating process by which an organism tends to maintain stability while adjusting to conditions that are best for its survival.
Describe how homeostasis plays a role in everyday activities
Being warm-blooded creatures, humans can increase or decrease temperature internally to keep it at a desirable level. Whether you're lying in the summer sun or playing in the winter snow, your body temperature only changes by a degree or two. That's an example of homeostasis being maintained.
List and describe the hierarchy of biological organization of life
organelle, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, communities, ecosystem, and biosphere.
Explain how atoms, and therefore the entire field of chemistry, relate to the study of life
Atoms are extremely important structures that make up all of the materials on earth. Atoms are in our bodies and they bond together to form molecules, which make up matter.
Identify the six most common elements in living organisms
Living organisms often contain trace amounts of several elements, but the most abundant ones are oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus.
Describe the parts that make up the atom and how the parts relate to each other
The parts of an atom are protons, electrons, and neutrons. A proton is positively charged and is located in the center or nucleus of the atom. Electrons are negatively charged.
Explain the relationship between valence electrons and atomic reactivity
The number of electrons in the outermost shell of a particular atom determines its reactivity, or tendency to form chemical bonds with other atoms
Explain the difference between polar and nonpolar molecules and give examples
Polar molecules occur when there is an electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms. Nonpolar molecules occur when electrons are shared equal between atoms of a diatomic molecule or when polar bonds in a larger molecule cancel each other out.
List and describe the three most common types of chemical bonds and compare their strengths and when they occur
Ionic bonding involves a transfer of an electron, so one atom gains an electron while one atom loses an electron.
A covalent bond involves the sharing of electrons between two atoms.
A hydrogen bond is an attraction between two atoms that already participate in other chemical bonds. One of the atoms is hydrogen, while the other may be any electronegative atom, such as oxygen, chlorine, or fluorine.
Discuss the relationship between chemical bonds and energy storage
The body's energy is a measure of the amount of energy needed to break apart one mole of bonded gases. Bonds don't break down therefor an energy change is needed. The energy input needed to break up a bond is also called bond energy.
Explain the difference between ions, isotopes, and radioisotopes - give examples
Ion: An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
Isotope: Any of two or more forms of an element where the atoms have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons within their nuclei.
Radioactive isotopes: an atom with an unstable nucleus, characterized by excess energy available that undergoes radioactive decay and creates most commonly gamma rays, alpha or beta particles.
Define and explain the properties of water that are critical to life
Water is essential for all living things. Water's unique density, high specific heat, cohesion, adhesion, and solvent abilities allow it to support life.
Define hydrophobic and hydrophilic and understand how molecules react under these different conditions
Hydrophilic molecules are the molecules which having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
Ex: salts, aqueous solution
Hydrophobic molecules are the molecules tending to repel or fail to mix with water.
Ex: alkanes, oils, fats , greasy substances in general .
Describe the difference between solute, solvent, and solution
Solute: The solid that dissolves in a liquid to form a solution.
Solvent: The liquid that dissolves the solid to form the solution
Solution: The result of a solid dissolving in a liquid.
Understand what the pH scale represents
pH is a measure of how acidic/basic water is
Identify the biological significance of acids, bases, and biological buffers. Give examples of each
Acids and Bases neutralize our pH. We want them to reach an equilibrium.
Buffers prevent even the slightest changes in pH that can inhibit important biological molecules such as enzymes.
Describe the roles of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in the human body
Carbohydrates are broken down into glucose for energy. Lipids are the same, but they are more for storing energy. Lipids are also used for cell structure and hormones. Proteins are used in a variety of ways: Energy, carrier molecules, enzymes, some hormones, and water retention (albumin). Nucleic acids are used to synthesize DNA. Carbs and Proteins can also be used for cell markers. For example, blood type is based on sugars that are present on your RBCs, in addition to proteins.
Discuss and identify the molecular structures of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids
Nucleic acids: Contain N in rings, nucleotides made of sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base
Carbohydrates: Made of C,H, and O; -OH's on all carbons except one
Lipid: Made of C,H, and O; lots of C-H bonds; may have some C=C bonds (unsaturated)
Protein: Contain N, have N-C-C backbone
Nucleic acids: Stores and transfers info
Carbohydrates; Store energy, provide fuel, and build structure in body, main source of energy, structure of plant cell wall
Lipid: Insulator and stores fat and energy
Protein: Provide structural support, transport, enzymes, movement, defense.
Explain and describe the units that make up proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (monomers and polymers)
Biological macromolecule-A large, organic molecule such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Monomer-A molecule that is a building block for larger molecules (polymers). For example, an amino acid acts as the building blocks for proteins.
Polymer-A large molecule made of repeating subunits (monomers). For example, a carbohydrate is a polymer that is made of repeating monosaccharides.
Understand and discuss the role of enzymes in chemical reactions
Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reaction to happen.
Discuss protein formation and the relationship between protein structure and function
Proteins are built as chains of amino acids, which then fold into unique three-dimensional shapes. Bonding within protein molecules helps stabilize their structure, and the final folded forms of proteins are well-adapted for their functions.
Describe the overall structure of a Eukaryotic cell
Eukaryotic cells are larger than prokaryotic cells and have a "true" nucleus, membrane-bound organelles, and rod-shaped chromosomes. The nucleus houses the cell's DNA and directs the synthesis of proteins and ribosomes.
List all of the major organelles of a typical animal cell and describe each of their functions
Mitochondria - found in both plant and animal cells. This helps in production of energy in the form of ATP which stands for adenosine tri phosphate. It's a double membraned organelle. It also has ribosome and circular DNA and that's why it is called as semi autonomous body
Lysosome - these are also known as suicidal bags. They engulf all the dead and waste products or some of the harmful foreign agent with the help of the strong hydrolytic enzymes present in them.
Endoplasmic Reticulum-it is more like a network of tubules scattered in the cytoplasm providing skeletal structure to the cell. Now on the basis of presence or absence of ribosomes they are of two types
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum -these are having ribosomes on them are actively involved in protein synthesis and secretion.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum - these are without ribosomes and hence form a smooth structure they are involved in lipid secretion and some steroidal hormones
Golgi Apparatus -Consists of many flat, disc shaped sacs or cristae stacked parallel to each other Help in packaging and transporting it to within the various parts of the cell.
Nucleus-is the that organelles that maintains the control and coordination of other organelles. It consists of chromatin fibers which get condensed and compact during cell division and are known as chromosome at that time and some spherical bodies called nucleolus and nucleous which is the nuclear matrix.
State the role of the plasma membrane
The primary function of the plasma membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings.
Describe the functions of phospholipids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in cell membranes
Lipids form the bilayer that prevents the water soluble materials from passing inside the cell. The proteins make the channels that control the passage of these substances into and out of the cell, in addition to forming the base for the receptors. The carbohydrates are connected to proteins and together they make the receptor.
Explain movement across the membranes, including all types of passive and active transport and provide examples of each type of transport
Diffusion is a process of passive transport in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration.
Osmosis is the movement of water across a membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration.
Facilitated diffusion is a process by which molecules are transported across the plasma membrane with the help of membrane proteins.
Primary active transport
The sodium-potassium pump maintains the electrochemical gradient of living cells by moving sodium in and potassium out of the cell. The sodium-potassium pump moves K+ into the cell while moving Na+ at a ratio of three Na+ for every two K+ ions.
Secondary active transport
A molecule is moved down its electrochemical gradient as another is moved up its concentration gradient. While secondary active transport consumes ATP to generate the gradient down which a molecule is moved, the energy is not directly used to move the molecule across the membrane.
Define osmosis and relate it to the actions of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic solutions
When thinking about osmosis, we are always comparing solute concentrations between two solutions, and some standard terminology is commonly used to describe these differences:
Isotonic: The solutions being compared have equal concentration of solutes.
Hypertonic: The solution with the higher concentration of solutes.
Hypotonic: The solution with the lower concentration of solutes.
Describe the metabolic pathways and the steps of ATP production. Be able to describe where the pathway is found inside the cell, what reactants go into the reaction and what products (and how many) come out
In stage one, glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell in a process called glycolysis.
In stage two, the pyruvate molecules are transported into the mitochondria. The mitochondria are the organelles known as the energy "powerhouses" of the cells. In the mitochondria, the pyruvate, which have been converted into a 2-carbon molecule, enter the Krebs cycle. Notice that mitochondria have an inner membrane with many folds, called cristae. These cristae greatly increase the membrane surface area where many of the cellular respiration reactions take place.
In stage three, the energy in the energy carriers enters an electron transport chain. During this step, this energy is used to produce ATP.
Oxygen is needed to help the process of turning glucose into ATP. The initial step releases just two molecules of ATP for each glucose. The later steps release much more ATP.
Discuss the role of hormones in regulating blood glucose levels for aerobic respiration
Insulin and glucagon are hormones that help regulate the levels of blood glucose, or sugar, in your body. Glucose, which comes from the food you eat, moves through your bloodstream to help fuel your body.
Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic respiration including what conditions drive the type of respiration and the products of each type of respiration
1. occurs in presence of oxygen.
2. CO2 and water is produced
3. lot of energy is liberated (38 ATP)
4.occurs in plants' and animals' cells
5. C6H12O6 --> CO2 + H2O + ATP ( Energy)
1. occurs in absence of oxygen
2. Lactic Acid or Alchol is produced
3. relatively small energy is liberated (2ATP)
4. occurs in many anaerobic bacteria and human muscle cells.
5. in muscles, lactic acid is produced while bacteria as Yeast produces Alcohol (Ethanol)6. C6H12O6 --> Lactic acid / C2H5OH
group of similar cells that performs a specialized function
List the four major tissue types in the human body
There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
Explain how epithelial tissue is defined and relate the structure of epithelial tissue to its function and give examples
Epithelial tissue provides a covering (skin, the linings of the various passages inside the body).
Describe the various types of connective tissue and the main components that make them up
Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues).
Discuss the form and function of red blood cells
The main job of red blood cells, or erythrocytes, is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues and carbon dioxide as a waste product, away from the tissues and back to the lungs. Hemoglobin (Hgb) is an important protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to all parts of our body.
Differentiate between smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle
Skeletal muscles - attached to your skeleton and tendons and are able to move at will or voluntary.
Smooth muscle - "involuntary muscle" that makes up the lining of most of the organs of the body.
Cardiac muscle - the heart, is an extremely dense strong tissue. large number of mitochondria.
Describe the role of neurons and neuroglia in nervous tissue
Nervous tissue contains two categories of cells — neurons and neuroglia. Neurons are highly specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses. Neuroglia are supporting cells that provide physical sport, remove debris, and provide electrical insulation.
Describe how the body's largest organ, the integumentary system, protects the body
Skin is the first line of defense against various harmful activity due to contact with grit, microbes, or harmful chemicals. Sweat produces from sweat glands deters microbes from over colonizing the skin surface by producing dermcidin, which has antibiotic properties prevention infection.
Describe the specialized cells found in skin that protect the body against the sun's UV radiation
The epidermis is the outer layer of your skin, and it plays an important role in protecting your body from things like infection, UV radiation, and losing important nutrients and water
Discuss UV damage and how to protect from yourself from it
Stay in the shade, especially during midday hours.
Wear clothes that cover your arms and legs.
Consider options to protect your children.
Wear a wide brim hat to shade your face, head, ears, and neck.
Wear wraparound sunglasses that block both UVA and UVB rays.
Discuss the three main types of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma. least maligned, most common.
squamous cell carcinoma. second most common. treated with radiation.
melanoma. most dangerous. treated by surgical excisions.
Discuss how melanoma typically presents differently based on biological gender
Melanoma is more common in men overall, but before age 50 the rates are higher in women than in men. The risk of melanoma increases as people age.
Discuss the ABCDE method of skin cancer detection
A is for Asymmetry: One half of a mole or birthmark does not match the other.
B is for Border: The edges are irregular, ragged, notched, or blurred.
C is for Color: The color is not the same all over and may include different shades of brown or black, or sometimes with patches of pink, red, white, or blue.
D is for Diameter: The spot is larger than 6 millimeters across (about ¼ inch - the size of a pencil eraser), although melanomas can sometimes be smaller than this.
E is for Evolving: The mole is changing in size, shape, or color.
Explain how negative feedback systems work (e.g. body temperature regulation, etc.)
Body temperature is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain. If the hypothalamus detects that the body is too hot, the response is that the body begins to sweat to try and reduce the temperature back to the correct level.
List the functions of the skeletal and muscular systems
Three main functions of the skeletal system :
Mechanical: they shape and support your body. Muscles attach to bones and thogether they enable body movement.
Protective: bones protect internal organs e.g. the skull protects the brain and the ribcage protects the lungs and the heart. It also protects the marrow it contains.
Metabolic: bones produce blood cells from its marrow, the same marrow can store energy (lipids). Bones also store (essential) minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.
Three main functions of the muscular system:
Movement: muscles are able to contract and relax enabling movement of the body and movement in the body (e.g. heart, vessels, bowel).
Posture maintenance: bones are not enough to keep us 'in shape'. Muscles are essential to allow us to maintain posture and body position.
Homeostasis: muscles generates body heat (think of shivering) keeping our body temperature within an acceptable range.
Differentiate between compact and spongy bone tissue
Compact bone tissue is composed of osteons and forms the external layer of all bones. Spongy bone tissue is composed of trabeculae and forms the inner part of all bones.
Describe the formation of a typical long bone
The process of bone formation is called osteogenesis or ossification. After progenitor cells form osteoblastic lines, they proceed with three stages of development of cell differentiation, called proliferation, maturation of matrix, and mineralization
Summarize the structure of bone and the function of the different structures
Bones come in all shapes and sizes and have many roles. Bones have many functions. They support the body structurally, protect our vital organs, and allow us to move. Also, they provide an environment for bone marrow, where the blood cells are created, and they act as a storage area for minerals, particularly calcium
Identify the parts of a typical long bone
A long bone has two parts: the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The diaphysis is the tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone. The hollow region in the diaphysis is called the medullary cavity, which is filled with yellow marrow.
Identify the bones of the body
The human skeleton is made up of 206 bones, including bones of the:
Skull - including the jaw bone
Spine - cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and tailbone (coccyx)
Chest - ribs and breastbone (sternum)
Arms - shoulder blade (scapula), collar bone (clavicle), humerus, radius and ulna
Hands - wrist bones (carpals), metacarpals and phalanges
Pelvis - hip bones
Legs - thigh bone (femur), kneecap (patella), shin bone (tibia) and fibula
Feet - tarsals, metatarsals and phalanges.
There are four different types of bone in the human body:
Long bone - has a long, thin shape. Examples include the bones of the arms and legs (excluding the wrists, ankles and kneecaps). With the help of muscles, long bones work as levers to permit movement.
Short bone - has a squat, cubed shape. Examples include the bones that make up the wrists and the ankles.
Flat bone - has a flattened, broad surface. Examples include ribs, shoulder blades, breast bone and skull bones.
Irregular bone - has a shape that does not conform to the above three types. Examples include the bones of the spine (vertebrae).
Describe bone development (from cartilage to ossification)
Intramembranous Ossification Process
-Described as the formation of bone from fibrous CT. Flat bones of the skull and clavicles develop this way.
-Process associated w/fetal bone development, day to day bone growth, and to a certain extent --- fracture repair. In this case, cartilage is substituted by the bone. Long Bones such as the femur and the humerus develop this way
Discuss the different types of joints and the movement provided by each
Ball-and-socket joints, such as the shoulder and hip joints, allow backward, forward, sideways, and rotating movements. Hinge joints. Hinge joints, such as in the fingers, knees, elbows, and toes, allow only bending and straightening movements. Pivot joints.
Contrast tendons and ligaments
A tendon serves to move the bone or structure. A ligament is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches bone to bone, and usually serves to hold structures together and keep them stable.
Define the terms agonist, antagonist group, and synergistic group
Prime mover: a muscle that has the major responsibility for producing a specific movement.
Antagonist: muscles that oppose, or reverse, a particular movement.
Synergist: helps prime movers by adding a little extra force to the same movement or by reducing undesirable or unnecessary movements.
Fixator: when a synergist immobilizes a bone or a muscle's origin so that the prime mover has a stable base on which to act.
Describe the anatomy of a skeletal muscle
Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single cylindrical muscle cell. An individual skeletal muscle may be made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective tissue covering. Each muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium.
Describe the function of the sarcomere and diagram the arrangement of proteins in the sarcomere
Sarcomere are the basic unit of striated muscle tissue.
It forms the repeating unit between two Z lines.
Skeletal muscles is made up of tubular muscle cells.
Each muscle fibers contain numerous tubular myofibrils.
The myofibrils consists of repeating sections of sarcomeres which appear as alternating dark and light bands.
Sarcomeres are composed of long, fibrous proteins as filaments that slide past each other when a muscle contracts or relaxes.
Discuss the role of calcium in muscle contraction
Calcium's positive molecule is important to the transmission of nerve impulses to the muscle fiber via its neurotransmitter triggering release at the junction between the nerves. Inside the muscle, calcium facilitates the interaction between actin and myosin during contractions.
Describe the hormones responsible for calcium homeostasis and how they work
Three major hormones (PTH, vitamin D, and calcitonin) interact to maintain a constant concentration of calcium, despite variations in intake and excretion. Other hormones, such as adrenal corticosteroids, estrogens, thyroxine, somatotropin, and glucagon, may also contribute to the maintenance of calcium homeostasis
Define osteoporosis and discuss the risk factors associated with the disease
Osteoporosis causes bones to become weak and brittle — so brittle that a fall or even mild stresses such as bending over or coughing can cause a fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures most commonly occur in the hip, wrist or spine. Bone is living tissue that is constantly being broken down and replaced.
Factors that increase the risk for osteoporosis in both men and women include:
Having a family history of osteoporosis. ...
Lifestyle factors. ...
Having certain medical conditions. ...
Taking certain medicines. ...
Having certain surgeries, such as having your ovaries removed before menopause.
Discuss the general role of the digestive system and describe the digestive process
The function of the digestive system is digestion and absorption. Digestion is the breakdown of food into small molecules, which are then absorbed into the body.
Define peristalsis and explain how it works to move substances through the digestive system
Peristalsis is a series of wave-like muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. It starts in the esophagus where strong wave-like motions of the smooth muscle move balls of swallowed food to the stomach.
Define mechanical and chemical digestion and know where in the GI tract each is happening
Mechanical digestion occurs from mouth to the stomach while chemical digestion occurs from mouth to the intestine. A major part of both mechanical and chemical digestion occurs in the stomach.
List some major enzymes of chemical digestion and note where they are produced and released and their substrates
Amylase, produced in the mouth. It helps break down large starch molecules into smaller sugar molecules.
Pepsin, produced in the stomach. Pepsin helps break down proteins into amino acids.
Trypsin, produced in the pancreas. Trypsin also breaks down proteins.
Pancreatic lipase, produced in the pancreas. It is used to break apart fats.
Deoxyribonuclease and ribonuclease, produced in the pancreas. They are enzymes that break bonds in nucleic acids like DNA and RNA.
Describe enzymes and their importance in chemical digestion
Chemical digestion could not take place without the help of digestive enzymes. An enzyme is a protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body. Digestive enzymes speed up chemical reactions that break down large food molecules into small molecules
Describe the general anatomy of the digestive tract
The digestive system -- which can be up to 30 feet in length in adults -- is usually divided into eight parts: the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine (or "small bowel") and the large intestine (also called "large bowel" or "colon") with the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder adding secretions to help digestion. These organs combine to perform six tasks: ingestion, secretion, propulsion, digestion, absorption, and defecation.
List the digestive organs in order form mouth to anus
The hollow organs that make up the GI tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus.
Describe the modifications of the GI tract at the stomach and the small intestine and the purpose of those modifications to the digestive system
The small intestines are well adapted for absorbing nutrients during digestion by: being very long, having villi and microvilli that increase surface area, using muscular contractions to move and mix food, and receiving and housing digestive enzymes and bile that help the breakdown of food.
Describe what happens when chyme enters the small intestine
During this time, a stomach enzyme called pepsin breaks down most of the protein in the food. Next, the chyme is slowly transported from the pylorus (end portion of the stomach) through a sphincter and into the small intestine where further digestion and nutrient absorption occurs.
List the major sphincters that separate the stomach from the esophagus and the small intestine
Two smooth muscle valves, or sphincters, keep the contents of the stomach contained. They are the: Cardiac or esophageal sphincter that divides the tract above. Pyloric sphincter or pyloric orifice that divides the stomach from the small intestine.
Explain the roles of the three major accessory organs that connect to the small intestine
The accessory organs include the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. These organs secrete or store substances that are carried to the duodenum of the small intestine as needed for digestion
Describe how the different monomers from the digested foods move across the cell membrane and where they end up
The small intestine absorbs most digested food molecules, as well as water and minerals, and passes them on to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change. Specialized cells help absorbed materials cross the intestinal lining into the bloodstream.
Discuss the function of the large intestine
The purpose of the large intestine is to absorb water and salts from the material that has not been digested as food, and get rid of any waste products left over.
Discuss the symbiotic relationship of the bacteria living in the large intestine
Bacteria in the large intestine have important roles, such as producing vitamins and controlling the growth of harmful bacteria.
Differentiate between macronutrients and micronutrients
Macronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in large amounts. These provide the body with energy (calories). Micronutrients are those nutrients that the body needs in smaller amounts.
Describe the importance of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in the diet and in energy storage
These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins.
Discuss the role of Adenosine triphosphate in the body
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the source of energy for use and storage at the cellular level. The structure of ATP is a nucleoside triphosphate, consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine), a ribose sugar, and three serially bonded phosphate groups
Describe some world health issues surrounding nutrition discussed in the lecture videos
being overweight or obese.
high blood pressure.
heart disease and stroke.
Describe some of the digestive system disorders discussed in the lecture videos
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ...
Peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD) and Gastritis. ...
Stomach Flu. ...
Gluten Sensitivity and Celiac Disease. ...
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) ...
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) ...
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