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PHIL 240 Midterm Exam Review
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TAMU Intro to Logic PHIL 240 with Professor Jose Bermudez 2020. This is going to have almost every question from previous quizzes and a bunch of stuff from the lectures. I hope this helps you kings😘
Terms in this set (65)
Which of the following are logic gates?
AND-gates
The predicate -- is between --- and --- has arity 2.
False
The sentence "Every horse has a rider" is true in which circumstances?
There are two horses, Snowie and Clover, who are both ridden by George.
AND
There are two horses, Snowie and Clover. George rides Clover and Georgina rides Snowie.
Sam Clemens lived in Hannibal, Missouri . (_) So, Mark Twain lived in Hannibal Missouri (_), since Sam Clemens is Mark Twain (_).
P,C,P
An invalid argument never has a true conclusion.
False
ex. Rose are red. Violets are blue. Therefore, Texas A&M is in Texas.
Some important programming languages, such as PROLOG, are versions of first-order logic
True
Identity is a symmetrical relation. That means that if b = a then a = b.
True
Pericles must be dishonest . (_)After all, Pericles is a politician (_)and hardly any politicians are honest .(_)
C,P,P
a = a.
This sentence is:
Logically necessary and TW-necessary.
There cannot be an invalid argument with true premises and a true conclusion.
False
ex. Roses are red. Grass is green. Therefore, Texas A&M is in Texas.
In correct deductive reasoning the conclusion
all of the above
Every sentence in First Order Logic has a fixed and determinate logical structure.
True
The Principle of the Indiscernibility of Identicals says that, if everything true of a is true of b, then a = b.
False
Dodec(a)\/ [not]docec (a)
Logically necessary and TW-necessary
Any sentence that is logically necessary is also TW-necessary.
True
If a valid argument has true premises then it must have a true conclusion.
True
Logical relations between sentences are typically determined by the --- of the sentences - by how they are constructed and by the logical concepts that they contain.
Form
The symbol ^ corresponds to the English logical expression "or".
False. It means and.
Anyone who wins an academy award is famous (_). Meryl Streep is famous (_). Meryl Streep won an Academy Award (_).
P,C,P
Every object in the domain of a FO logical language must be named by a constant.
False
The Principle of the Reflexivity of Identity says that --
Everything is identical to itself
In a deductive argument it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
False
There are 19 students in this classroom (_). Two students have gone on to bigger and better things (_), inasmuch as 21 students originally signed up fo the class (_).
P,C,P
Logic is the study of the laws of correct ---
Reasoning
If we want to say that block a is larger than block b in the Block World language, then we can write
Larger (a, b)
A First Order logical language can contain a constant that picks out two objects
False
Large (A) \/ Medium (a) \/ small (a)
TW-necessary but not logically necessary.
The simplest kind of sentences that we can construct in a First Order logical language are --?
Atomic sentences
Propositional logic is able to express logical concepts such as ALL and SOME
False
Which of the following could be domains described by a logical language
The set of real numbers, as studied in Analysis
A universe composed of four iron spheres, and nothing else.
A chess board and chess pieces
The laws of thought, in the sense studied by logic, are like the laws of physics. They describe how people think, in the way that the laws of physics describe how objects behave.
False
First Order Logic is a framework for building
logical languages
There cannot be a valid argument with false premises and a false conclusion
False
ex. This is true. There are plenty of valid arguments with false premises and a false conclusion. For example:
Texas A&M is in Louisiana. Louisiana is south of Honduras. Therefore, Texas A&M is south of Honduras.
Constants in FO logical languages are like names in English in the following sense - more than one constant can pick out the same object in the domain.
True
The main difference between first-order logic and propositional logic is that first-order logic studies the rules for correct reasoning involving
Logic gates
Harrison Ford is not famous (_). After all, actors who win Academy Awards are famous(_) and Harrison Ford has never won an Academy Award .(_)
C,P,P
There are no sentences that are TW possible but not logically possible.
True
A sound argument never has a false conclusion
True
Harry prefers Sue to Tom is an atomic sentence. It could be constructed from which of the following predicates?
-- prefers Sue to Tom
Harry prefers Sue to --
Harry prefers -- to Tom
Any of the above
In an inductive argument it is possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false
True
Every sentence in English has a fixed and determinate meaning.
False
In binary arithmetic every number can be written as a sequence of 0's and 1's
True
Any sentence that is logically possible is also TW-possible.
False
Rockets cannot travel faster than the speed of light.
This sentence is:
Physically necessary
Propositional logic studies the laws of correct reasoning involving the [1] connectives.
Boolean
In English, every sentence of the form Mary = Mary is true
False
First Order Logic contains tools for identifying whether a particular event has taken place in the present, in the future, or in the past .
False
Premise Indicators
Because
Since
Due to
On the grounds that
Inasmuch as
Conclusion Indicators
So
Hence
Consequently
Accordingly
Thus
Therefore
Can there be an argument with a false premise and a false conclusion
Yes, that is valid
Can there be an argument with a false premise and a true conclusion
Yes, that is valid
Can you have an invalid argument with a true premise and a true conclusion
Yes, and it is invalid
Can you have a valid argument with a true premise and a false conclusion?
No, this cannot exist
What is a proof?
A series of truth preserving steps that lead from a set of premises to a conclusion
What does a correct proof demonstrate?
That the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises
=Intro rule
says that for any individual constant a, you can introduce a sentence a=a at any line in the proof without citing an other lines in the proof
=Elim
This rule states that if any of the preceding lines in the proof is sentence a=b then you can write down a new sentence that substitutes b for a in any of the preceding sentences of the proof.
The justification needs to give the rule and also the line numbers of the sentences to which the rule has been applied
General Definition of logical consequence
The conclusion of an argument is a logical consequence of the premises iff it is not possible for the premises to be true and the conclusion to be false
Analytical Consequence
Is the logical consequence that holds in virtue of the meanings of non-logical words such as 'aardvark". The Ana Con rules allows you to move from a set of sentences to any sentence that is an analytical consequence of those sentences
^ in tautologies
If there is at least one F it is F
\/ in tautologies
If there is at least one T it is T
Rank Ana Con, Taut Con, and FO con in order of strength
Strongest: ana con
Medium: FO con
Weakest: Taut Con
What does logical possibility mean
to say that a scenario is logically possible is to say that it is not contradictory
All sentences that are TW possible are logically possible, but not all sentences that are logically possible are tarskis world possible
yeah
All sentences that are logically necessary are TW necessary, but not all senteces that are TW necessary are logically necessary
si
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