World History Patterns of Interactions: Chapter 6 Rome
fhs navarre 2014
Terms in this set (45)
form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders (citizenship with voting rights = only given to free: born male citizens) There were representatives.
the nobles/aristocrats of Rome
the common people of Rome
large military units composed of Roman soldiers. There were 5000 heavily armed soldiers (infantry) and cavalry (group of soldiers on horseback). Legions are then separated into smaller groups of 80 men called a century. Legions = proof of organized military + fighting skill of the Romans
(legend) one of the founders of Rome, son of the god Mars and a Latin princess. The other founder is his twin brother, Remus. The twins were abandoned on the Tiber River as infants and were raised by a she: wolf. The grown twins then decided to build a city near the spot they were left at. Reality: the real founders chose the spot for its fertile soil and its strategic location.
Latins, Etruscans, Greek influence
The Etruscans were skilled metalworkers and the Romans accepted the Etruscans' alphabet. The Romans also were influence by the Latins and the Greeks. The Latin people lived on Palatine Hill in huts, which was near where the Romans lived. They were possibly the first Roman settlers. The Greeks had colonies at southern Italy (near the coastline). These colonies brought all of Italy including Rome closer to Greek civilization.
place where all of the senators talked and discusses about certain topics
twelve tablets made by the plebeians to prevent patricians from manipulating the laws to their advantage and as they see fit. It was the basis of Roman law.
two officials (one plebeian and one patrician) that held the power to command the army and direct the government. Power = limited; could only serve for one year and they could not be elected again until after ten years
power given to the consuls. One consul could overrule the other's decisions.
aristocratic branch of Rome's government. It had legislative and administrative functions in the republic. They were 300 members that were patricians. Later, plebeians were able to in the Senate. They had great influence over both foreign and domestic policy. In more specific terms, they controlled foreign/financial policies and advises the consuls.
an empire who was an enemy against Rome. Carthage = opposing city that had control over the Western Mediterranean with its various trade route in the Mediterranean Sea. Founded by princess who fled Phoenicia to escape the king's brother who killed her husband (king), made agreements with local tribes + created city; Carthage had impenetrable walls and a huge, spacious harbor that allowed ships to easily enter and leave the harbor
a series of wars in which Carthage fought against Rome. The first Punic War was of them fighting over Sicily. Sicily was at the middle of Mediterranean Sea and was an important island because most of the trade routes around the sea went through this island. Hannibal's father led the battle at the First Punic War (lasted 23 years), but sadly, Carthage lost. In the second Punic War, after Carthage's short rest, Hannibal led the Carthegian army through Spain (a part of the Roman empire) and past the Alps. After passing through the Alps, he caught the enemy by surprise and ravaged Roman territory. In the Third Punic War, Carthage was preparing to defend against Numidia, a civilization that was threatening to take over Carthage. To defend itself, Carthage began preparing for war. However, when a Roman inspector came to see the city and saw it at arms, he told Rome to get ready and fight because Carthage broke their promise to it. Rome laid siege to Carthage and finally destroyed it after three years of trying to penetrate its impenetrable walls. At the end of this war, Rome gained full control over the Western Mediterranean.
the strategist/general who led the Carthegian army in the Second Punic War. His army went through Spain and past the Alps toward Rome. To get past the Rhone River in France, he told his builders to make rafts that were 200 ft long. It had earth and sticks on it to make the elephants on it think that it was still on ground. To get past the Alps and its huge boulders that blocked their path, Hannibal told his builders to dig through the boulders after heating the boulders with burning sticks and pouring vinegar on it. The vinegar created cracks which could be use to destroy the boulders. Once he was in Rome, he used the cavalry first to trick the enemy. Once the enemy fell for it and was surrounded, they were all slaughtered, while a few managed to either be captured or free (fled). Hannibal's army fell in Zama when defending Carthage. Instead of surrendering to Rome, he suicided. He had originally made a promise to his dad to defeat the Romans. He did not want to break it by surrendering so he killed himself.
Battle of Zama
Zama is a city near Carthage; in there, this is where the Romans finally defeated Hannibal in 202 BC. After Hannibal lost, which meant Carthage lost, Carthage became a province of Rome. One rule that was then made to Carthage was that they could not go to war unless they were given permission from Rome.
slaves (strong healthy males/ppl captured from conquered lands) used in entertainment. They might fight animals or fight other professional fighters/gladiators.
a set of people who ruled Rome; there were three people who acted as one ruler. The first triumvirate consisted of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus (wealthy Roman). In the battle for leadership, Crassus was killed in a battle not related to this event, while during that event, Pompey eventually was killed by the pharaoh of Egypt who offered his head to Caesar as a gift. The second triumvirate was composed of Mark Antony (Roman general), Octavian/Augustus (Caesar's grandnephew), and Lepidus (powerful politician). Lepidus also stepped down in the second civil war for power.
two brothers (Tiberius and Gaius) who were both tribunes. They tried to help the poor by doing land reforms. The reforms were about limiting the size of the estates and giving the land away to the proletariat. When Tiberius first proposed those ideas, to a poor man, it seemed like a miracle and fair, but to a landowner, that was plain robbery. In the end, when Tiberius was going to try to be reelected again, the senators and their followers clubbed him to death and threw him to the Tiber. When his brother, Gaius, became tribune, he tried to weaken the Senate by a series of law that he created and had "programs" that dealt with unemployment. The senators claimed that he was an enemy of the state. Eventually he and his followers died in one of Rome's hills when a group of senators and their slaves and foreign mercenaries attacked them.
a military commander and politician who won his soldiers' trust and loyalty by enduring the same dangers and meager meals they had when conquering Gaul. Caesar became famous when he conquered most of Gaul and killed about one third of the people there. He also was named the governor of Gaul. He also went to Britannica and tried to conquer it but he failed. The plebeians adored him because he was powerful and seemed like a good ruler. Caesar = originally part of the First Triumvirate of Rome. After the conquest of Gaul, there was civil war within Rome. Caesar's army crossed the Rubicon River and attacked Pompey's army in Rome at Jan. 10, 49 BC. Caesar eventually won and defeated Pompey once more at Pharsalus in Greece in 48 BC. Pompey soon died in Egypt. When Caesar became the first dictator of Rome in 44 BC, he granted citizenship to many provinces outside of Rome, expanded the Senate to 900 men, and made the senate more representative of the empire. He ordered landowners to use free men to work for them instead of slaves, giving the once jobless proletariat something to do and earn money. He also founded 20 colonies in various places to allow the proletariat to live there cutting more than half of the Romans who depended on grain handouts. Caesar created a new calendar that was more accurate (365 days + extra day every fourth year). He was assassinated on March 15, 44 BC by his best friend, Brutus, and fellow senators.
queen of Egypt who fell in love with Mark Antony. She and his army together fought against Octavian's army in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. When they lost, she committed suicide along with him.
one of the main conspirators who killed Caesar; was known as Caesar's best friend/only person that he could trust.
Part of the 2nd Triumvirate; when it fell, Octavian defeated Lepidus and forced him to retire. Mark Antony fell in love with Cleopatra in Egypt. Octavian accused them of wanting to rule Rome from Egypt. Battle of Actium : >31 BC; naval battle and A/C lost the battle. Octavian won and made Egypt a province of Rome. Became the sole ruler of Rome. He became known as Augustus, the first emperor of Rome. Founded the civil service system which meant civil servants of the plebeians or free slaves managed the affairs of the government. Ruled for 41 years.
one of the Roman senators; lived in the time when Caesar was alive
Rome was at the peak of its power from 27 A.D. to 180 B.C.: The empire was under the rule of Augustus Caesar at the time This period of peace was known as the Pax Romana or "Roman Peace" During this time, the Roman Empire included more than 3 million square miles and the population was 70 million people. During this period of time, Augustus: Stabilized the frontier, and built public buildings He set up a civil service (he paid workers to manage the affairs of government, such as the grain supply, tax collection, and the postal system.) The senate still functioned, but civil servants drawn from plebeians and even former slaves actually administered the empire.
Was the most important industry in the empire during this time. 90% of the people were engaged in farming
Additional food and luxury items for the rich were obtained through trade. In Augustus' time, a silver coin called a denarius was in use throughout the empire. This made trade = easier
Roman ships from the east traveled the Mediterranean protected by the Roman navy Cities such as Corinth in Greece, Ephesus in Anatolia, and Antioch on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean grew wealthy due to trade. Rome also traded with China and India.
A complex network of roads linked the empire to far away places as Persia and southern Russia.
During the Pax Romana
Gladiator games were popular. Gladiator fights were held in the Colosseum (underneath it = system of pipes) Gladiators were usually captured soldiers from distant lands or slaves In the shows, wild animals such as tigers, lions, and bears fought each other or gladiators In other contests, gladiators engaged in combat with one another until one of them was killed Naval sea battles were also staged when water from pipes under the Colosseum let it rush out
Slavery was a significant part of Roman life. Almost 1/3 of the population was slaves Slaves were conquered peoples brought by victorious Roman armies and included men, women, and children. According to the law, slaves were the complete property of their masters and their masters could do whatever they wanted to do with their slave. Occasionally they would rebel but no slave rebellions ever succeeded More than 1 million slaves lost their lives in rebellions End Wealthy = enjoy banquets, power, money/ Poor = barely had the necessities of life, unemployed, and depended on the grain handouts. Virgil
It was like the Greek's Parthenon except that it contained many Roman gods/goddesses for the Romans to worship.
Virgil was a poet, who produced some of the most famous work in Latin literature → the Aeneid (epic of Aeneas) → modeled after Homer. Great writers → Ovid wrote light, witty poetry. Amores wrote poetry about love. Livy wrote a history multi: volume, from origins to 9 B.C.E. Legends were used in his writings. Tacitus wrote accurate accounts of history → concerned with lack of morality. Annals/Histories stated the good and bad of imperial Rome, as well as disgust with Nero, a destructive emperor.
Historians estimate that sometime around 4 to 6 B.C., a Jew named Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea. The main information source about his life/teachings is the Gospels (the first four books of the New Testament of the Christian Bible). According to the Gospels, Jesus was raised in the village of Nazareth in northern Judea and was baptized by a prophet known as John the Baptist. At the age of 30, Jesus began his public ministry. For the next three years, he preached, taught, did good works, and performed miracles. His teaching contained many ideas from Jewish tradition, such as monotheism, loving others, and the principles of the Ten Commandments. Jesus emphasized God's personal relationship to everyone He stressed the importance of people's love for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and even themselves. He taught that God would end wickedness in the world and would establish an eternal kingdom after death for people who sincerely repented their sins. Jesus died after being crucified when Pontius Pilate, Roman governor, thought Jesus was up to not good.
books written by probably the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ
Paul (Saul) of Tarsus
He was originally a Jew, but after he had a vision about Christ, he became a Christian. To help spread Christianity, he traveled all around Rome preaching to people of all classes and taught them that Jesus died for their sins. He officially said that Christianity was more of an actual religion rather than a different interpretation of the Jewish rules. So, finally, a group of believers met each other and created a set of beliefs that was officially true Christian beliefs.
Christianity → defined basic beliefs of the church. The Council of Nicea wrote it in 325 C.E. → described monotheistic God, who made all things, as well as the value of purity (the Virgin Mary), and crucification as divine punishment. The holy Catholic/apostolistic Church → baptism/remissions of sins and resurrection. The father, son and Holy Ghost were the Holy trinity. The Creed also stated the idea of heaven after death.
fixed prices on goods to end inflation; doubled size of army, restored prestige of being an emperor by performing many fancy rituals to make himself look god: like; divided the empire in two (Greek speaking east and Latin speaking west). Controlled eastern half while co: leader governed western half. Next emperor would be Constantine....
a person fighting for leadership of Rome. Saw a cross when praying for divine help. He later won the battle of Rome. He declared Christianity as one of the approved religions in the empire during the Edict of Milan.
Edict of Milan
a document that said that Constantine approved of Christianity as one of the religions of the Roman Empire. Soon, Theodosius, the next emperor, would say that Christianity is the main religion of the Roman empire...
Constantinople (or Byzantium)
the result of the eastern Roman empire; after the western half of it fell to Germanic invasions, the eastern half was luckily still alive. The empire that was still alive would soon end up becoming the start of the Byzantium empire. IT is the new capital of the Roman empire; renamed Constantinople. IT had high walls (good defense) + shifted central power to east. Good trading location too.
The Western empire crumbled due to internal problems, separation of the West from the wealthier East, and outside invasions. In 370 C.E., Mongol nomads from central Asia, the Huns, destroyed all in their path → thus Germanic people pushed into Roman land, as the Germanic tribes moved through Gaul/Spain/North Africa. The Western empire was unable to defend from barbarians → in 410 C.E., it was plundered for three days. Germanic peoples had gathered on the northern borders of the empire and coexisted in relative peace with Rome. (444 CE) The Huns united under Attila, their leader → 100,000 soldiers, which terrorized both the East and the West. In the East, they plundered 70 cities but could not take Constantinople, due to its walls. In 452 C.E., they moved into Rome (famine and disease, which attacked the Huns, kept Rome from being conquered), and Attila died in 453 C.E., so the Huns were no longer a threat, yet Germanic invasions continued.
The last Roman emperor
was Romulus Augustulus → until 476 C.E. → there were no more emperors, and power in the western half disappeared. The Eastern half flourished, preserving Greco Roman culture → emperors ruled from Constantinople, seeing themselves as heirs of Augustus.
Legacy of Rome-Language
Latin was the language of learning in the West, after Rome, and the language of the Roman Catholic Church. It developed into Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian), and also influenced English.
Legacy of Rome-Architecture
the arch, the dome, and concrete were combined to build great structures, such as the Colosseum. The arch resulted in the vaulted ceiling. Nero built a palace complex. (He was mad, killing his own mother. He set the city on fire to make room for his palace, blaming the fire on Christians, having them burnt. His father, Claudius was a suspect. Engineering → arches supported bridges/aqueducts, which brought water into cities (when they crossed a river/ravine, the aqueduct was lifted upon arches); this was practical. Also, Roman roads were build, and the army built a vast network of them with stone/concrete/sand, serving to connect Rome to all parts of the empire. Thomas Jefferson led to a Roman revival, with public buildings such as the U.S. Capitol and state capitols. Running water was Rome's greatest achievement. The emperor Claudius had the greatest impact on the water supply. He built two of the major aqueducts.
Legacy of Rome-Law
Rome's most lasting and widespread contribution. It strengthened citizen rights, applied equally to rich and poor, setting standards of justice (influenced by stoic philosophies/common sense/practical ideas). They were the basis of legal systems in Europe, which influenced other countries. Important principles included- All had right to equal treatment under law. Innocent until proven guilty Proof rested with the accuser, not the accused. People were punished for action, not for thoughts. Unreasonable laws would be set aside. Rome strengthened Western cultural tradition → historian R.H. Barrow stated that Rome achieved immortality.
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