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Chapter 13 - Denundation
Weathering, Karst Landscapes, and Mass Movement
Terms in this set (66)
the science of landforms, their origin, evolution, form and spatial distribution
any process that wears away or rearranges landforms
Examples of Denundation
What are the agents of denudation?
The effect of different resistances in rock, coupled with variations in the intensity of physical and chemical weathering
Endogenic processes _______ _________ landscapes.
Exogenic processes _______ ________ landscapes.
What type of a system is a landscape considered?
An open system
Dynamic Equilibrium Model
The balancing act between tectonic uplift and erosion, between the resistance of crust material and the work of denudation processes. Landscapes evidence of ongoing adaption to rock structure, climate local relief and elevation.
the point at which energy overcomes resistance against movement
What is the pattern of equilibrium in a landform?
1) equilibrium stability, some fluctuation
2) destabilizing event
3) period of adjustment
4) development of new and different condition of equilibrium
curved, inclined surfaces that form the boundaries of landforms
Features of a Slope
increasing, convex surface that curves downward, located near the top of the slope
indicates an outcrop of resistant rock that forms a steep scarp or cliff
receives rock fragments and material from above; condition will reflect the local climate
Debris slope in humid conditions
continually moving water carries material away, lowering the slope
Debris slope in arid conditions
concave surface along the base of the slope
broad, gently sloping erosional surface
Angle of Equilibrium
A slope is _______ when if its strength exceeds denudation forces.
A slope is _______ when if materials are weaker than denudation forces.
breaks down rock at Earth's surface and some depth below the surface by disintegrating material or dissolving it in water
broken up rock
parent rock from which regolith and soil develops
sandy, unconsolidated fragmental material
what soil evolves from
Factors that influence weathering
rock composition and structure
rock composition and structure
weathering influenced by character of bedrock
precipitation, temperature and freeze-thaw cycles
position of water table a water movement within soil and rock structures
exposure to sun, wind and precipitation
can stabilize structure as well as produce organic acid which can aid in chemical weathering process
when rock is broken and disintegrated without any chemical alteration
Physical weathering is also known as ________.
Types of Physical Weathering
frost action (freeze/thaw cycle)
the weathering of rock by repeated freezing and melting of water
Occurs especially in arid climates
dry weather draws moisture to surface of rocks, water evaporates and dissolved minerals in the water grow crystals
The force of their growth spreads individual mineral grains apart and begins to break up rock
physical weathering in which sheets of rock fracture off of a pluton, which has become exposed at the surface by the erosion of the surrounding material
chemical breakdown of the constituent minerals in rock, always in the presence of water
Types of Chemical Weathering
Dissolution of Carbonates
"combination with water"
water becomes part of the chemical composition of the mineral
decomposition process that breaks down silicate materials in rocks
metallic elements combine with oxygen
minerals dissolve into solution
carbon combines with minerals, dissolving them
What minerals are most commonly affected by carbonation?
calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium
-Limestone formation that consists of 80% or more calcium carbonate for dissolution process
-Joints in the limestone
-Aerated zone between ground surface and water table
-Vegetation cover to supply organic acids that enhance dissolution
circular depressions in limestone landscapes
formed in wet tropics formed in deeply jointed resistant limestone
complex landscape in which sinkholes intersect
Where are caves generally formed?
Just below the water table
formed when water containing dissolved minerals drips from the cave ceiling
depositional feature formed from cave ceiling
depositional featured built up from cave floor
formed when stalactites and stalagmites connect
any unit movement of a body of material propelled and controlled by gravity
Mass movement is also known as _________.
Angle of repose
angle at which there is a balance of the driving force of gravity and the resisting forces of friction and shearing
What is the driving force of mass wasting?
What is the resistant force of mass wasting?
shearing strength of the slope, cohesiveness and internal friction
Types of Mass Movement
Falls and avalanches
a volume of rock falls through the air and hits a surface
mass of falling and tumbling rock, debris and soil
large amount of material failing simultaneously
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