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The passage of biological traits or characteristics from parents to offspring through the inheritence of genes.


Relating to the invisible part of the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths longer than those of visible red light but shorter than those of microwaves.


A procedure that is carried out in order to observe a response caused by a stimulus; not a complete experiment.


A statement that describes invariable relationships among phenomena under a specified set of conditions.


Electromagnetic radiation that lies within the visible range.


One of the fundamental states of matter with a definite volume but no definite space.


The outer part of solid Earth composed of rock essentially like that exposed at the surface, consisting of the crust and outermost layer of the mantle, and usually considered to be about 60 miles (100 kilometers) in thickness.


The process of nucleur division in cells during which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half.


A process of nucleur division in euraryotic cells during which the nucleus of a cell divides into two nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes.


A systematic description of an object or phenomenon that shares important characteristics with the object or phenomenon. Scientific models can be material, visual, mathematical, or computational and are often used in the construction of scientific theories.

Natural Selection

The theory stating every organism displays slight variations from other organisms of its kind, and the struggle for limited natural resources results in individuals with certain natural variations adapted to their specific environments.


a statement based on what one has noticed or observed


The progeny or descendants of a person , animal, or plant considered as a group.


Any living plant, animal , or fungus that maintains various vital processes necessary for life


the apperence or other observable characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction of its genetic makeup and its enviroment

Plate tectonics

Theroy of global dynamics in which earth's crust is divided into a smaller number of large, rigid plates whose movements cause seismic activity along thier borders.


Any of a group of nonallelic genes that collectivly controll the inheritance of a quantitative character or modify the expression of a quantitive character.


An organism that makes it's own food from the enviroment;usually a green plant.


Emission of energy in the form of rays or waves.

Radioactive dating

Measurement of the amount of radioactive material(usually carbon 14) that an object contains; can be used to estimate the age of the object


An allele for a trait that will be masked unless the organism is homozygous for this trait.


In scientific research , the repetition of an experiment to confirm findings or to ensure accuracy.


The sexuall or asexuall process by which organisms generate new individuals of the same kind and perpetuate the species.


having a defined shape and a definate volume; one of the fundamental states of matter.

Sound wave

Longitudinal pressure waves in any material medium reguardless of whether they constitute audible sound; earthquake waves and ultrasonic waves are sometimes called sound waves.


The region of the universe beyond earth's atmosphere.

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