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UGS 303 Friesen Exam 1

Terms in this set (13)

MUSLIMS and the Pandemic:
- feel conflicted about social distancing b/c of strong family ties
- Quran inspires them to be generous and helpful and visit the sick which could only be done virtually
- the amount of personal hygiene encouraged comes naturally
** Quran -> "God loves those who are clean"
- Prophet Muhammed -> "cleanliness is half faith"
** encouraged to wash hands before/after eating, bath at least once a week and after marital relations, brush teeth daily, groom nails and private parts
** have to perform ritual ablution before the 5 daily prayers
- Closure of Mosques and Friday Services
** Mosques didn't affect them as much as Friday Prayer because Mosque was an optional daily prayer and Friday Prayer has to be done in a Mosque (now Friday Prayer is offered online to try to fill void)
- Effect on Ramadan and the annual pilgrimage to Mecca
** Although Ramadan (fasting) isn't being affected by COVID, the fasting dinners (iftar) and the daily congregational prayers (tarawin) are being affected
** Pilgrimage is a optional pilgrimage to Mecca and it was the first time a pilgrimage was cancelled due to a pandemic
- they believe that emergence of virus is an active creation of God
some argue that COVID was created by God to warn and punish humanity for consumerism (destruction of the environment and personal excesses)

BUDDHISTS and the Pandemic:
- say pandemic calls for meditation, compassion, generosity, and gratitude
- have lots of healing rituals
- normal health measures
- cure using ritual apotropaic (magical protection to protect against disease
** now blessed objects objects (amulets, charms, talismens) are being formulated with the intention of protection from getting COVID
- Mahayana Buddhists use sacred objects too and pray to entire pantheons of buddhas and bodhisattvas
- Vajrayana Buddhists - form of visualization where practioner generates vivid mental image of a deity and then interacts with them on the level of subtle energy
- Buddhist Modernism - dismissed rituals and other aspects of traditional Buddhism
**rituals offer a way to confront their anxieties of covid providing comfort and relief

CHRISTIANS and the Pandemic:
- population die for economy
- calls for war w/ another country to blame for the deaths
- police brutality and burning and storming capitol
- going back to normal after covid would be worst thing possible
- 2 viewpoints about pandemic
**1st one: anxious about when to return to normal, questions about when we will get back to normal (tied w/ worry about economy and being able to physically be with people again
**2nd one: people who think that we will be forever changed by COVID, months of fear and seclusion will shape us like WW2 shaped past generations, author senses longing (appealing to imagine idealistic future w/ stronger society and more united)
- God is saying that we are beings on this planet who are bound to one another
- we are seeing the injustices of our social system and humankind does have capacity to act collaboratively and change radically in response to an emergency situation
Historical context of book:
- author of revelation is John, but not John the disciple
- John was Jewish, that was is culture and religion
- went by Jewish name Ioannes
- didn't know Greek very well
- " Christian" never appeared in the Revelation of John b/c it was a derogative term during that time used by outsiders
** instead he calls them "saints" (as in holy) and "slaves" ( as in of God)
- other indicators of John's religion was that the book included the recognition of the Jewish idea of a Messiaen figure and lots of use of Jewish holy writings
- God of Israel as only deity
- intention that book would be read other churches in groups of 10-50 people each
- thinks book was written 80-100 CE

Political and Economic Context:
- wrote book to 7 small churches
- basic political and economical structure was a few larger cities and dominated large rural territories with 80% of people living in rural areas (small # of cities controlling rural resources)
- John wrote assemblies in 7 cities of Asia to operate with in a political unit of organization created by the Romans after they replaced the Attalid Kingdom
** wrote to these cities b/c there were no assemblies in rural areas
** cities had always been the first place where new ideas and movements appeared
- Revelation has a distinct religious evaluation of class struggle in the Roman Empire
** God of Israel is rightful ruler of all creation
** a struggle btwn God and a comic adversary that attempts to rule the world by deceiving humanity
- John's socio-economic views are neither Marxian nor Capitalist
- greed is a symptom of the economic system empowered by Satan in opposition to God
- in book's perspective, God is not portrayed as siding with the lower classes
- end result would be the end of all class struggles and all suffering and would establish eternal intimacy among humans around the earthly throne of God and the Lamb

Literary Context:
- written as a narrative
- contains message about transcendent realities that are otherwise unknowable
- realities involve future time and end of human history and involve supernatural space
- message delivered by an angel and has a human recipient
- John drew on Jewish concepts and scriptures to describe transcendent space and time
- John described the end of human history as the destruction of empires by God
- controversial overall structure (doesn't have an overall literary plan but description of that structure is unknown)
- Revelation is organized around the #7 and #4, there are subsets, interludes, overlapping symbols, cross-referencing and brinkmanship
- uses patterns in symbolism
- 3 geographic zones (earth, heaven, underworld)
- 3 main levels of narration ( John's letter, John on Patmos, John in heaven)
- 3 protagonists (God, the Lamb, John the Prophet)
- 3 main antagonists (Satan, the Beast, the False Prophet)
- parallel set pf characters

4 interpretations of the book:
- Futuristic interpretation is the most valid interpretation
1. Futuristic Interpretation - accepts the book as prophecy that is yet to be fulfilled
2. Historical Interpretation - suggests John was describing major events that would take place during the history of the Church (looking back at history)
3. Spiritualizing Interpretation - believed by those who think everything in the book should be taken figuratively, that John was talking about a spiritual conflict
4. Preterist Interpretation - John wrote the book prior to the destruction of the temple in A.D. 70 and was referring to events of his own day (doesn't work with the Golden Rule of Interpretation

Golden Rule of Interpretation: tries to avoid anomalous and absurd consequences from arising from literal interpretation

Key Verse of Revelation:
- Revelation 1:19 - unlocks the door to outline of the book
1. "what you have seen
2. what is now...
3. what will take place later"
- book is made up of future events

- book of revelation is often discredited
- proper understanding of book motivates Christians to consistent dedication and service, lifts their spirits and gives them hope

Value of Studying Revelation:
- a special blessing is promised to those who read the book
- it reveals God's Plan for the future
- it gives detail of the Bible prophecy clearer than any other book in the Bible
- book completes the circle of Bible truths
- the book promises a curse on all such infidels who detract from God's holy word