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Arts and Humanities
History of Russia
This set corresponds to our study of the emergence of Communism in Russia and the rise of the single-party dictatorship under Stalin
Terms in this set (29)
An economic system where imperialist nations use their colonies for economic gain. The mother country extracts resources from the colony, bring them back to the mother country to manufacture and sell the goods back to the colony. Colonies are forced to trade only with the mother country.
An economic system motivated by profit, where private entities compete to sell goods and services. In this system, there are no restrictions on trade and prices are set in the free market.
A political system where all of the people participate in the decision-making to govern society
a political/economic system that incorporates many aspects of free-market capitalism with elected representatives and individual rights.
A political philosophy based on the belief that significant individual rights should be protected
a governmental system where individual has no guaranteed rights and must obey the dictates of the leadership
Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx, Marxism
German economist-philosophers who developed a critique of industrial capitalism in the mid-19th century and the theoretical alternative of communism
during the period 1905-1917, there were three revolutions where, primarily the industrial workers and educated intellectuals worked to bring down the absolute monarchy (Tsar) and replace it eventually with communism under Lenin.
political party of early 20th century communist revolutionaries led by Leon Trotsky who generally believed in bringing about communism but felt that Russia wasn't ready because it wasn't fully developed industrially and there wasn't enough class consciousness. They joined the Bolsheviks in 1917 to bring about the Bolshevik Revolution.
political party of early 20th century communist revolutionaries led by Vladimir Lenin who agreed with the Mensheviks that Russia wasn't ready for a revolution but believed that a small group of committed revolutionaries, through authoritarian methods, could bring about communism.
the October 1917 revolution led by Vladimir Lenin that ousted the weak Provisional republican government to bring about communism for the first time.
The working class in a capitalist economy; those who sell their labor to the Bourgeoisie for wages.
The owning class in a capitalist economy, those who own the means of production and hire the proletariat to do the work.
political bureau at the highest level of the Soviet government structure. While the politburo was supposed to be an elected committee representing the individual Soviets throughout Russian society, the Politburo put power into the hands of the few at the top.
a workers' council which began as industrial workers organization and became the main political authority within the decision-making process during the early days of the Bolshevik revolution.
Russian Communist Revolutionary who was exiled from Russia after the first revolution in 1905 and returned in 1917 to lead the successful Bolshevik Revolution. He led the revolution through the Russian Civil War after the revolution. His illness in 1922 and death in 1924 led to Stalin's rise to power.
while he sided with the Mensheviks against Lenin when the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party split in 1903, he joined the Bolsheviks in 1917 and became the main organizer of the October Revolution. Led the Red Army during the post-revolution Civil War. He was expelled by Stalin in 1929 and was assassinated in 1940.
One of the soviet leaders during Lenin's period of leadership. He formed the Triumvirate with Stalin and Kamenev to try to marginalize Trotsky after Lenin's death. However, he was ultimately expelled from the Party by Stalin and executed.
One of the soviet leaders during Lenin's period of leadership. He formed the Triumvirate with Stalin and Zinoviev to try to marginalize Trotsky after Lenin's death. However, he was ultimately expelled from the Party by Stalin and executed.
Russian leader who rose from relative unimportance within the Russian Communist party to accumulate power between 1922 and 1927 when he became and sole dictator in the Russian single party state until his death in 1953.
Soviet Union, United Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR)
the name of the Russian state after the Bolshevik Revolution when war communism and then Stalinist controlled the communist Russian nation and its satellite states.
Permanent Revolution or Proletarian Internationalism
Traditional communist view that continuous revolution would lead to international spread of communism where more industrially developed nations would assist less developed nations transition from capitalism to communism.
Small land owners in Russia who were demonized and destroyed by Stalin during his policy of Collectivization in the 1920s
Stalin's policy of ending private ownership of all land and relocating all farmers to large collective farms in hopes of mechanizing the process of food production and feed the industrialization of Russia. However this led to widespread famine, particularly the Great Famine of 1932-33, which hit the Ukraine especially hard.
Lenin's last political testament
Lenin's 1922 written critique of the leading members of the communist party and the way forward for the revolution after his impending death. In particular, Lenin wrote about Stalin's rudeness and the danger of his taking over leadership of the party.
Stalin staged trials to accuse his rivals of being traitors, to force confessions, and to execute those who were against him and his policies.
The Great Purge or The Great Terror
The period between 1936 and 1939 when Stalin increased exiles and executions to create fear, consolidate his power, and increase slave labor for industrialization leading into WWII.
a Soviet forced work camp used by Stalin to increase fear and control the population while fueling industrialization.
Socialism in one country
Stalin's vision of Russian nationalism that Russia could develop its communist economy on its own without support from other more industrialized nations
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