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Bio Exam 3
Terms in this set (77)
If a kelp farmer wanted to maximize her harvest, which type of echinoderm would she be most concerned with?
sea urchins, which are well-defended herbivores
Which of the following processes occurs first in sexual reproduction in many fungi (assume the process starts with haploid hyphae growing through material)?
List a characteristic shared by mammals.
Hair, Mammary Glands, Specialized Teeth, Diaphragm
The fungal partner provides which service(s) in the lichen symbiosis? Check all that apply
Water Storage, Protection
What is one advantage for internal incubation?
Protection, Mobility, Constant Temperature
List one characteristic that all vertebrates have, which is above those in chordates
3-part Brain, Endoskeletons that grow with the animal, paired eyes, pronounced cephalization, a vertebral column that encloses the nerve cord, Closed Circulatory System
This organism is in which fungi group? This structure has several sacs containing 8 spores each.
There are both marine and fresh-water echinoderms.
Among the organisms listed here, which are thought to be the closest relatives of fungi?
Which group of fungi includes many mycorrhizae species?
Amphibians are considered to have two lives. This is because one life is _____________ and the other is ____________.
Aquatic; Terrestrial. Or: Vegetarian; Carnivorous
When mycelium grows into an unexplored source of organic matter, what is most likely to appear within the food source thereafter?
True or False: The study of fungi is called mycology.
The primary function for the filamentous mycelium is_________.
to be an extensive surface area that is well-suited to absorptive nutrition
Place the following events in an Ascomycota life cycle in order. Starting with step1 - a haploid (N) hyphae growing through a medium.
1. Hyphae (N) 2. plasmogamy 3. Dikaryotic N+N hyphae 4. karyogamy 5. Diploid 2N hyphae
This organism is in which fungi group? This is a cross-section of a gill and contains a stalk with 4 spores on it.
Which of these are amniotes?
The fusion of nuclei in fungi is called__________.
The vertebrate spinal nerve tissue develops from this embryonic tissue:
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
Unlike eutherians, BOTH monotremes and marsupials _______.
Have some embryonic development outside the uterus.
Which of the following characteristics is unique to Cytrid fungi compared to other groups?
True or false: Chordates are the same as vertebrates.
Beer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) belongs to the following fungus phylum?
Which of the following is the greatest threat to birds in North America?
Primate evolution and behavior, such as hunting skills, have been directed in part by the development of depth perception. What anatomical change made depth perception possible?
Movement of eye placement to the front of the head
How would you characterize the energetics of fungi? (How do they get their carbon? How do they get their energy?)
Vertebrates have skeletons that grow with the individual.
Echinoderms have a complete digestive system.
Adult tunicates (urochordates) lack notochords, however, larval urochordates have them and use them to_________.
aid in swimming; adults are sessile and thus no longer propel themselves.
Chondrichthyes is best described as________.
Sharks, Skates, and Rays
Which of the following statements about reptiles is true?
Non-bird reptiles regulate their body temperature from external sources of heat
How did the evolution of the jaw contribute to diversification of early vetebrate lineages?
It made additional food sources available
Name one function of the water vascular system in echinoderms.
Excretion, Locomotion, Feeding, Gas Exchange
What is the name given to the group of species on the branch leading to contemporary humans?
This organism is in which fungi group? This structure has two ends of hyphae that connect via a cell that when mature will resemble a ball.
List a characteristic shared by primates.
Shared ancestry, Flat nails, Opposable thumbs, Colored vision, eyes on front of face
The following organism can best be described as a_______. This image is of a deuterostome that has a complete digestive system, is pentaradial, and lacks a notocord.
Which structure of the amniotic egg most closely surrounds the embryo?
Which of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of living tetrapods?
A sturdy-finned, shallow water lobe-fin whose appendages have skelatal supports similar to those of terrestrial vergebrates
Fungal cell walls are made of _________.
Which statement about deuterostomes is correct?
Deuterostomes share key features of embryonic development
Jaws developed from what structure?
pharyngeal gill slits
The first group of organisms to spend a significant time on the land were______.
Which structure represents a key innovation that arose during vertebrate diversification?
Vertebrates and tunicates share_________.
A muscular, post-anal tail
The fusion of cytoplasm from two different fungus individuals leads to a cell type best described as _______.
What is the major distinguishing characteristic of fungi?
Nutrient acquisition via external digestion
What is the word that describes cells that are N+N
Which organism uses a mucus slime as a protection mechanism?
Which of the following organism group lost vertebrae during its evolution?
True or false: Hyphae are mats made of mycelia
False. Hypha are branching filaments that make up the mycelium of a fungus.
This structure produces haploid spores from the diploid nuclei by by ___________ and belongs to the phylum __________. This structure has several sacs containing 8 spores each.
In this diagram the blue line (which lies on top of the red notochord) is _______________. This image is of a long and thin organism that contains a blue line along its back and under this is a read line. A yellow oval blob is found behind its mouth. Water flows in mouth through the yellow oval blob and out its anus.
the lancet's dorsal hollow nerve cord
What term describes organisms with a jaw?
Which of the following characteristics are shared by hagfish and lampray?
A well-developed notochord
A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. It has the following characteristics: external armor of boney plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. In addition to these, it will probably have which of the following characteristics?
Mammals and birds eat more often than reptiles. Which of the following traits shared by mammals and birds best explains this habit?
True or False: Endothermy evolved once.
False. (Birds and mammals both evolved this)
True or False: Some deuterostomes are pseudoceolmates.
A diploid cell
Lichens are symbiotic associations of at least one fungus and ________.
cyanobacteria or algae
Neanderthals are an extinct hominid species. Some modern humans have a small percentage of Neanderthal DNA, suggesting that interbreeding occurred between the two species. Those modern humans with the greatest Neanderthal DNA have recent evolutionary history on which continent?
Fungi that lack septa are called ___________.
Gills in ray-finned fish are evolved from which primitive structure?
Chemicals, secreted by soil fungi, which inhibit the growth of bacteria, are known as ______________.
Name the only North American marsupial.
This bluish organism is a chordate, despite the fact that the adult filter feeder form essentially has only an incurrent and excurrent siphon and a pharanx. It can be best described as__________.
Long, branching fungal filaments are called_______.
Name one of the four characteristics of a chordate (at some point in their life cycle).
Dorsal hollow nerve chord, post anal tail, pharyngeal slits, notochord
Which of the following are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
What is a unique feature of marsupial reproduction?
Marsupial young spend more time developing outside the mother's body than inside
Put these fungi phyla in order from the group that contains the LEAST diversity to the group that contains the MOST diversity.
Least: Glomeromycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota: Most
Which of the following groups has members that have both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
If a tunicate's pharyngeal slits were suddenly blocked, the adult animal would have trouble_______.
Respiring and Eating
Which fungi group contains the fungi that are causing the world-wide decline of amphibians?
Many plants grow significantly faster (i.e. they benefit) when they can form mycorrhizal associations with soil fungi. What explains this finding?
When researchers added radioactive phosphorus atoms to the soil, plants grown in the presence of their symbiotic fungi took up more of the radioactive phosphorus than did plants grown in the absence of fungi.
This structure (a stick with strings of spores coming off of it like hair) is an asexual reproductive structure. produces__________ spores by the process of _________. This image contains a stalk and a ball that has many strings of spores off of it. It looks like a puff ball.
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