116 terms

Biology 103 Ch 1,3,4

Biology 103 Ch. 1,3,4
study of living things
a living thing
Branches of Biology
Microbilogy/ Anatomy/ Physiology/ Pathology/ Ecology
the study of microscopic organisms
study of structure
study of life functions/ life activites ex. photosynthesis
study of diseases, and disease causing agent
study of now organisms interact with their environment
Themes of Biology
energy/ system and interactions/structure and function / unity with diversity/ evelution/ homeostasis/ cooperation
energy(theme of biological science)
powers of life (ex. metabolism)
system and interaction(theme of biologicla science)
systems are made of smaller parts. Interacting to produce awhole. (ex. parts of a body)
structure and function( theme of biological science)
bilogical structure is well suited to function (ex. animal's anatomy, cell;s structures)
unity within diversity(theme of biological science)
there are countless organisms. each organism is united by shared characteristics. (ex. bacteria and humans they share metabolism)
evolution(theme of biological science)
the environment is and has changed. Organisms have changed with its environment)
homeostasis(theme of bilogical science)
maintaining internal stateability. even though the outside of the organism is changing the inside stays the same.
cooperation(theme of biological science)
deals with each organism helps the other live.
Bilogical Diversity 6 kingdoms
Archeabacteria/ Bacteria/ Protists/ Fungi/Plants/ Animals
One of the kingdoms consists of old bacteria from the past (ex. methanogens/ Halophiles)
one of the kingdoms of biology that is present day bacteria
one of the kingdoms of biology (ex. protozoa/Alga)
one of the kingdoms of biology(ex. mushrooms/ yeast/meldews)
one of the kingdoms of biology (ex flowers)
one of the kingdoms of biology (ex. dog)
Shared Properties of Life
cellular organization / metabolism / homeostasis / reproduction / responding/ heredity / adaptations / growth
cellular organization (prop of life)
cells are the basic unit of life. all things have cellular org.
metabolism (prop. of life)
all chemical processes within a cell involve with storing or producing energy. 2 PHASES anabolic meta and catabolic meta
anabolic metabolism
to build large substances from smaller substances
catabolic metabolism
breaking down of large substances into smaller substances and releasing energy
homeostasis (prop. of life)
maintaining internal stability
reproduction (prop. of life)
the production of offspring. Has 2 types sexual and asexual repro.
sexual reproduction
producing offspring with the use of "gamete"(sex cells) Is most common becasues it produces genetic diversity
asexual reproduction
producing of offspring without the use of "gametes" Ex. Mitosis- cell division/ Budding- the production of an out grows on a parent organism eventually outgrows into a new organism/Fragmentation-when pieces of an orgainism grows into new organisms. ex. cutting flat worms inhalf. You get two worms.
responding (prop of life)
to react to a stimulas ex. light to a plant
heredity (prop. of life)
living things share common DNA genes
Adapatations (prop. of life)
to adjust to the environment.
growth/ development (prop. of life)
to increase in size/ then they go through development changes
the sciences of the relationships of matter
the study of life
smallest units of matter. each is different
a form of matter composedof one type of atom
the center of an atom conatins a protons and neutrons/ also contains genetic code and controls cell activities
a + charged particles that have a uniformed weight of 1P= 1 amu 10= 100mu
particles with a neutral charge and does not have a uniformed weight that can be heavy or light
electron cloud
a locations where electrons are
-- charged particles that has a very small mass and orbit the nucleus
energy levels
the place where electrons orbit the neucleus
perement electrons to orbit the nucleus but stay away fron other ekectrons and other energy levels. has usually two electrons together
Ist level of electron cloud
max number of electron 2 /orbitals 1
2nd level of electron cloud
max # of electrons is 8 / orbitals is 4
3rd level of electron cloud
max# of electrons is 8 or 18 depending on how you need them / orbitals 4 or 9
4th level of elctron cloud
max# of electrons id 18 / orbital 9
rule of 8 for enegy levels
outer energy levels can have a maximum of 8 electrons they can have less but they can' t have more
atomic number
number of protons (protons = electrons)
two or more elements chmically bonded by either sharing or transfering electrons
Ionic bonds
a chemical bond formed when atoms lose or gain electrons to fill up orbitals or energy levels(strongest type of bond)
to lose electrons
to gain electrons
covalent bond
a chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms to complete orbitals and energy levels.( next to strongest bond)
hydrogen bond
are fromed when atoms of one molecule are weakly attracted to hydrogen atoms in other molecule ex DNA
nonpolar molecules
type of covalent bond are equaly shared between two atoms or elements producing no charged ends
polar molecules
type of covalent bond sharing of electrons. Electrons are unequally shared producing slite different charge at the pole( end of molecule )
a macromolecule that is energy
a macromolecule that us energy, insalation. and builds cell components.
a macromolecule that builds cell componants
nucleic acio
a macromolecule that carries genetic information
conatains C,H,O atoms. which H and O ratio is 2:1 structure formula can be in a ring or chain design FUNCTION is energy and structual support
3 Classes of crbohydrates
Monosaccharides/Disaccharides 0r Oligosaccharides / Polysaccharides
are the monomer unitr of carbohydrates. they are used to assemble large carbohydrates Ex glucose, frutose, galactose
Disaccharides or Oligosacchrides
double sugar carbohydrates composed of two monoscrabader bonded by senthesis EX lactose / surcose/ maltose
carbohydrates containing thousand of monos. units . they are fiberous becasue cardon atoms brench out FUNCTION is to support and can be energy substance
polysacchoride that is common in plants composed of thousands of glucose componants
polysaccharide that is plant fiber insoulable glucose unites. located in cell walls
a Polysaccharide thousands of glucose units form external skeletons
a Polysaccharide that is an animal starch that is thousands of glucose units. located in muscles and liver orgainisms
saturated fat
fatty acids that are hard, regid, not flexible, orginated from animals oils and fats
unsaterated fat
fatty acids that are soft, flexible, and are found in plant orgins
most diverse macromolecules composed of C,O,N,H atoms/ form a chain structure/ subunit monomer is amino acid/ FUNCTION= build cell componants and support/ FORMED by dehydration synethesis
a type of nucleic acid that contains 4 nitrogen acids A,T,G,C / has dioxiribose sugar / PURPOSE= carry out genetic codes and store genetic codes/Looks like a ladder / Can be housed in cytoplasm nucleus or nucleoid
a type of nucleic acid that conatins 4 nitrogen acids A,U,G,C/ has ribose sugar / PURPOSE 1. to copy DNA (called transcription)2. and sequence amino acids and produce protein.Looks like half a ladder
Origin Theories Of Macromolecules & Cells
Extra Terrestrial/ Evolution/ Creation
Extra Terrestrial ( Theory of Macro. & Cells)
the theory that molecules were transfered from another planet to earth. Evidence: Meteorites hit the earth and fossils and bacterias where in them
Evolution (theory Of Macro.& Cells)
the theory that organisms change overtime Evidence- Miller-Urey experiment in which that put N,H,C,ammonia,Volcanic activity, and lighting in a vacume and mixed them together and made mcaromolecules.
Creation(theory of Macro. & Cells)
God created macromolecules Evidence none
cell theory
1. all organisms are composed of one or more cells 2.cells are the bsic unit of structure & function in life 3. cells arise from preexciting cells 4. all cells have evolved from simple to comples life forms
Basic Aspects of Cells
Cell membrane/ DNA /Cytoplasm / Size & Surface Volume Constraints
Cells membrane(plasma)
1. it seperates the cell from the external environment 2. promots the flow or movment of molecules and ions 3. contains protein receptors that control cells activities(external)
is protoplasm outside the nucleus. Contains membrane systems endoplasmic recticulum and goli apparatas then it contains ribosomes, lysomes , nucleus , filaments(microfilaments, micortubules)
Prokaryotic Cells
1. primitive cells 2. no nucleus 3. no membrane bound substances 4. DNA cluster in an area called nucleoid 5. they have rigid, hard, tough cell walls 6. composed cell walls Peptidoglycan 7. Located in Archeabateria and Eubacteria(Bacteria) Kingdoms
Eukaryotic Cells
1. have a nucleus 2. have membrane bond organiles 3. membrane bond organiles produce compartmentalization 4. located in Protist, Fungi, Plant & Animals
allows different chemical reactions to ovvur in one cell
Theory of Endosymbosis
(explains compartmentalization) Proposes that some of the present prokaryot evolve by a symbosis process in which one prokaryotic species engulfed another prokaryotic species this produced eukaryotic cell.
nuclear envelope
membrane that surronds nucleus compsed of two lipid layers. Controls intre and exit
nuclear pore
protein wholes with in the envelope. Allows RNA intre and exit
dark spherical mass with in the nucleus Composed of RNA components PRODUCES ribosomes
chromatin material
desolves DNA
condenced DNA units bound by proteins
Endoplasmic recticulum
a general collection of genetic canalsand sackes that lead from the nucleus to the plasm membrane FUNCTION 1. transport proteins and lipids 2. Manufactures and packages proteins and lipids
Rough ER
a type of ER that are membranes with ribosomes attached FUNCTION manufature, package, and transport proteins
Smooth ER
a typeof ER that are membranes with out ribosomes FUCTION manufature, package, transport lipids
Goldi Complex
composed of gogi bodies & vesicles FUNCTION 1. collect, package, redistripute proteins and lipis 2. package proteins and lipids for searchition or exchrition
reycycleing centers. / contain strong digestive enzymes./Recycle worn-out cell components/ called suicide sacks are damages to cells if they break
speitle vesticles / contain enzymes that confort lipids to carbohydrates / contains enzymes that detoxify harmful substances
power house of cell (make and store energy)/ cite of oxidative meatbolism/metabolizes carbohydrates or fats into cell energy(ATP)
store or make food LOCATED in plant protist cells HAS 2 types Chloroplist(make food by housing chlorophl) Leucoplast(store food such as lipids & starch.(nonpigmented)
they are RNA particles that manufacture proteins -LOCATED on ER or free float in cytoplasm
tiny storage pays. produces from Golgi complex FUNCTION - transport storage
found in animal cells only composed of MTOC ( Microtubuce, Organization, Centers ) Pattern 9+2 PURPOSE - asset cell divison
cell skeleton -composed of fibers & bundles od fibers that produce scafold net work proviving shape, frame work, support and cell locomotion___Composed of Microtubules and microfilaments
sctin fibers
bundles of fibers based on TMOC PURPOSE produce flagella and cilia for cell locomotion
center vacuoles
membrane bound storage compartment/stores water , dissolves ions and wastes/ used to produce Osmotic pressure
when vaculoes loses osmotic pressure ( wilt)
finger like projections of the plasma membrane FUNCTION to increase surface area of plasma membrane to avoid absorbtion and transport
long hair like projections contain MTCO . Connect by baisol body
short projections composed of MTCO connect by baisol body
citoplatic extensions cell crawling macanizoms