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Anatomy Warmups Exam 3
Terms in this set (131)
what is ischemia?
tissue damage because of lack of oxygen
a motor axon that synapses with many muscle cells provides
coarse control of movement
what is the name of the sheath of dense irregular connective tissue that completely surrounds a muscle?
the neurotransmitter found at the neuromuscular junction is
fibroids tumors are benign tumors derived from
smooth muscle in the uterus
in a sarcomere, the I band is bisected by a
the dilated terminal end of an axon that contacts the muscle cell is called the
motor end plate
a skeletal muscle cell is multinucleate because
during development, uninuclear myoblasts fuse to form a larger cell
intercalated disks are characteristic of
which ion triggers contraction of sarcomere?
the all-or-nothing contraction of cardiac muscle cells (as opposed to the modulation of contraction) is under the control of what part of the nervous system?
the darker region of the sarcomere, as seen in TEM, is where the thick and thin filaments over lap. this region is called the
the wave of involuntary contraction that moves intestinal contents is
the cytoplasm of muscle cells is called
the long cylindrical protein filament bundles in the sarcoplasm are called
which type of fiber has the lowest myoglobin content?
which of these are found associated with the endomysium and perimysium connective tissue laters?
nerves and blood vessels
the sensation of the position of the muscles and bones is called
cardiac and skeletal muscle cells...
- muscle fibers are striated
- contraction all-or-none
smooth muscle cells...
- good capacity for regeneration
- slow, wavelike and rhythmic contractions
- muscle cells spindle-shaped
- located in digestive tract
cardiac and smooth muscle cells...
- under autonomic control
- nuclei located centrally in cell
skeletal muscle cells...
- single multinucleate cells
- longest muscle fiber
- contraction triggered by motor end plate
which type of muscle cell will increase in number as well as size in response to increased load?
the function of muscle spindles is
which type of muscle fibers experience rapid fatigue?
the repeated functional units of a myofibril, arranged end to end, are called
which cells form new muscle cells after injury?
which proteins are contained in a thin filament?
actin, tropomyosin, and troponin
which of these regions has a glandular/epithelial origin?
- all of these
- pars distalis
- pars tuberalis
- pars intermedia
all of these
chromatin cells are functionally associated with the...
sympathetic nervous system
which of these is associated with obesity?
- type 1 diabetes
- grave's disease
- addison's disease
- type 2 diabetes
type 2 diabetes
which of these organs doesn't contain any endocrine cells?
- they all have endocrine cells
they all contain endocrine cells (NOT "brain")
what organ produces mineralocorticoids?
what organ produces glucocorticoids?
what organ produces precursors to testosterone and estrogen?
what organ produces epinephrine and norepinephrine?
what organ produces glucagon?
what organ produces insulin?
what organ produces somatostatin?
what organ produces pancreatic polypeptide?
what organ produces T3?
what organ produces calcitonin?
what organ produces PTH?
what organ produces melatonin?
which of these is true?
- endocrine glands differ from exocrine glands in having no secretory duct. they are ductless.
- all are true.
- endocrine glands themselves are sometimes target organs for hormones from other glands
- juxtacrine secretion involves signaling molecules that remain on the cell surface and affects target cells when they make contact
all are true
with which organs are enteroendocrine cells associated?
duodenum, pancreatic islets, and ileum
what hormone does somatotroph produce?
what hormone do lactotrophs produce?
what hormone do gonadotrophs produce?
what hormone do thyrotrophs produce?
what hormone do corticotrophs produce?
the signaling molecules of endocrine glands are called
graves disease is associated with...
autoimmune effects of antibodies, overproduction of thyroid hormones, and hypermetabolic state
which of these is true of steroid hormones?
- insulin is a type of steroid hormone
- they are synthesized from cholesterol
- they are synthesized from the animo acid tyrosine
- adrenaline is a type of steroid hormone
they are synthesized from cholesterol
what tissue/organ produces somatotropin?
what tissue/organ produces prolactin?
what tissue/organ produces thyrotropin?
what tissue/organ produces adrenal corticotropin?
what tissue/organ produces "releasing" hormones?
what tissue/organ produces neurohormones?
what tissue/organ produces vasopressin?
what tissue/organ produces oxytocin?
what tissue/organ produces epinephrine?
what tissue/organ produces norepinephrine?
what tissue/organ produces aldosterone?
what tissue/organ produces cortisol?
what tissue/organ produces glucagon?
what tissue/organ produces insulin?
what tissue/organ produces somatostatin?
what tissue/organ produces calcitonin?
what tissue/organ produces PTH?
what tissue/organ produces melatonin?
acromegaly is produced by overproduction of products by...
what hormone stimulates growth in epiphyseal plates?
what hormone promotes milk secretion?
what hormone promotes androgen secretion in men?
what hormone stimulates secretion of adrenal cortex hormones?
what hormone increases water permeability in kidney?
what hormone stimulates mammary gland myoepithelial cells?
what hormone regulates salt balance?
what hormone stimulates glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis?
what hormone regulates sympathetic stress response?
what hormone causes liver to release glucose to blood; bronchodilation?
what hormone lowers blood glucose levels?
what hormone inhibits osteoclast activity, thus lowering blood calcium levels?
what hormone deals with glycogenolysis and lipolysis?
what is the target organ of TSH?
what is the target organ of PRL?
what is the target organ of FSH?
what is the target organ of LH?
what is the target organ of GH?
muscle, bone, and adipose tissue
what is the target organ of ACTH?
what is the target organ of TRH?
what is the target organ of PIH?
what is the target organ of GNRH?
which neuroendocrine system is associated with a reaction to stress?
hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)
what axis coordinates reactions to stress?
hypothalamic-anterior pituitary-adrenal axis
hyperparathyroidism results in...
increased osteoclast activity due to excessive PTH
which one of these is not a direct target of hypothalamic hormones?
- none of these are direct targets
- adrenal gland
- thyroid gland
none of these are direct targets
hormones produced by the hypothalamus are...
which part of the brain manages the endocrine system?
which part of the brain regulates activities of the autonomic nervous system?
what is the organ of origin for TRH?
what is the organ of origin for PRH?
what is the organ of origin for GnRH?
what is the organ of origin for CRH?
what is the organ of origin for GHRH?
what is the organ of origin for PIH?
what is the organ of origin for GIH?
what is the organ of origin for TSH?
what is the organ of origin for PRL?
what is the organ of origin for FSH?
what is the organ of origin for LH?
what is the organ of origin for GH?
what is the organ of origin for ACTH?
what is the organ of origin for lipotropin?
in the hypothalamus-anterior pituitary-adrenal axis, which of the following hormones has an inhibiting effect on TRH production by the hypothalamus?
which of these hypothalamic hormones is inhibitory?
- somatostatin and TRH
- dopamine and somatostatin
- CRH and dopamine
dopamine and somatostatin
which of these is true?
- endocrine signaling targets cells that are nearby
- ligands bind to receptors
- receptors are typically polysaccharides
- neurotransmitters use endocrine signaling
ligands bind to receptors
what is the role of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system?
it distributes hormones produced by the hypothalamus
what hormone is responsible for bonding between a dog and its owner?
which is true of the pars distalis?
- it forms from part of the brain
- it recedes projects from the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei
- it is part of the neurophysis
- it is highly vascularized
it is highly vascularized
which is true of the pars nervosa?
- it's part of the posterior pituitary
- it contains pituicytes
- it's formed developmentally from brain tissue
- all are true
all are true
which of these is true about peptide hormones?
- peptide hormones produced by the thyroid gland
- peptide hormones are synthesized from cholesterol
- cortisol is a type of peptide hormone
- none of these is true
none of these is true
what stimulates the pinealocytes to release melatonin?
sensory input from the retina
what is the function of principal cells?
secrete parathyroid hormone and raise blood calcium levels
the sella turcica is a cavity in which the hypophysis sits. in which bone is the sella turcica found?
what is the function of thyrocytes?
produce thyroglobulin, uptake iodide, and secrete T3 and T4 into blood
which of these is true?
- type 1 diabetes is most commonly associated with obesity
- type 2 diabetes is due to loss of beta cells due to autoimmune problems
- type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent
- type 2 diabetes is treated with regular injections of insulin
type 2 diabetes is non-insulin dependent
what is another name for the pituitary gland?
with what axis are the hormones vasopressin and oxytocin associated?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Anatomy Exam 2
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