How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

56 terms

Equine Murmurs

STUDY
PLAY
What is the most useful dx test for murmurs?
US
Grading murmurs based on sound and intensity is?
reliable
Grade ______ murmurs are only heard on auscultation and are very faint.
1
Grade ____ murmurs are likely the softest ones you will hear.
2 (grade one is almost silent)
Grade ____ murmurs are obvious and easy to detect w/ auscultation.
3
Grade _____ murmurs are easily detectable and heard over a large area.
4
Grade _____ murmurs produce a palpable thrill.
5
Grade ____ produce a thrill and can be heard w/ out auscultation.
6
Most murmurs and all pathological murmurs in horses are due to ______ and not ______.
regurg.; stenosis
If the murmur comes between s1 and s2 it is ________ and if it comes after s1 and s2 it is ______.
systolic; diastolic
Pan_____murmurs are heard during the pulse free interval.
pandiastolic
Pan ______ murmurs are heard during the pulse. (the opposite of the pulse free interval)
systolic
Murmurs in horses are ____ diastolic and systolic.
half and half
Aortic murmurs radiate ______.
downwards
Mitral murmurs radiate ______.
upwards
A LOUD systolic murmur heard on the left is probably?
mitral regurg
A LOUD diastolic murmur heard on the left is probably?
aortic regurg.
A MILD murmur heard on the left side in a fit race horse is probably? what is relevant about this? how can you be sure?
mitral regurg; can be normal in a racing animal via physiological hypertrophy keeping valves from closing all the way; if it goes away after exercise
The most common physiological murmur in a foal is? how long is it normal?
PDA; up to 7 days
When might a foal have a normal physiological murmur due to a PDA after 7 days?
when they are sick it might take longer to close
_____% of race horses have some sort of murmur.
80%
The ECG is _____ for detection of murmurs.
s hit
Why are aortic flow murmurs physiological in the horse?
they are produced by the normal blood flow thru the aorta in a horse
Diastolic filling murmurs are ________ and sound like small clicks. They are grade 1 only.
physiological
Loud systolic murmurs, grade 4 or higher, that are very obvious are _______ in sick animals and will?
physiological; go away after the animal gets better
Which dz of the blood can cause murmurs? how?
anemia; changes in blood viscosity
Be careful to not confuse murmurs due to ______ with ones due to cardiac dz.
illness (colic, painful conditions)
Severely sick horses will generally have ______.
murmurs
What is the most common congenital cardiac defect in horses?
VSD
What is unique about the murmurs assoc. with VSD?
there are two; systolic murmur is on the right(due to relative pulmonic stenosis from excess blood coming from left to right) and left (thru defect)
T/F 1/2 of VSD's are small and asymptomatic.
T
VSD's cause _____ CHF.
right
mitral regurg. murmurs are heard on the _____ side of the animal.
left
Which murmur of horses causes the most problems? When are they not an issue?
mitral regurg; grade 3 or less
Mitral regurg. is a dz in horses older than?
6yrs
When does mitral regurg. present w/ a sudden onset?
when chordae tendonae rupture
A grade 5 murmur w/ thrill due to mitral regurg. is always considered?
pathological
mitral regurg. causes _____ CHF.
left
What other pathology of the heart can be confused w/ mitral regurg.?
aortic flow murmurs
Mitral regurg. is mainly a problem in ______ horses and the changes are ______.
high performance/racing; degenrative
Which murmur is only a problem of horses 10+?
aortic regurg.
Which murmur is the only common cause of a diastolic murmur in horses?
aortic regurg.
T/F aortic regurg. is only heard on the left.
F; both sides
How do you know if aortic regurg. is severe?
if there are bounding pulses
What arrhythmia can be a sequelae of aortic regurg?
VPC
T/F the louder an aortic regurg. murmur is, the worse it is.
f; loudness is not an indicator of severity; use pulse to help determine severity
An aortic regurg. w/ a bounding pulse is clinically ______.
pathological
Valvular degeneration and endocardiosis are two causes of this murmur in older horses.
aortic regurg.
Which rare murmur causes v-tach due to hemorrhage into the intraventricular septum?
aortic root fistula; ruptured sinus of velselva
Which serious dz of older stallions usually causes death with in a year, but causes low grade murmurs?
aortic root fistula
What is one heart problem that can cause colic?
aortic root fistula
What is the tx for aortic root fistulas?
lidocaine; for symptoms; wont cure; dead in a year
Bacterial endocarditis will present how?
NOT as cardiac dz, but febrile dz
A febrile horse w/ wt.loss, and joint dz is most likely to have this cardiac pathology.
endocarditis
What is the dx, tx, and px for endocarditis in horses?
dx = ultrasound, tx = abx, px = poor
Crackles heard when auscultating the horse can indicates ______ CHF if the lungs are healthy.
left