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Most murmurs and all pathological murmurs in horses are due to ______ and not ______.
If the murmur comes between s1 and s2 it is ________ and if it comes after s1 and s2 it is ______.
A MILD murmur heard on the left side in a fit race horse is probably? what is relevant about this? how can you be sure?
mitral regurg; can be normal in a racing animal via physiological hypertrophy keeping valves from closing all the way; if it goes away after exercise
When might a foal have a normal physiological murmur due to a PDA after 7 days?
when they are sick it might take longer to close
Why are aortic flow murmurs physiological in the horse?
they are produced by the normal blood flow thru the aorta in a horse
Diastolic filling murmurs are ________ and sound like small clicks. They are grade 1 only.
Loud systolic murmurs, grade 4 or higher, that are very obvious are _______ in sick animals and will?
physiological; go away after the animal gets better
Be careful to not confuse murmurs due to ______ with ones due to cardiac dz.
illness (colic, painful conditions)
What is unique about the murmurs assoc. with VSD?
there are two; systolic murmur is on the right(due to relative pulmonic stenosis from excess blood coming from left to right) and left (thru defect)
Which murmur of horses causes the most problems? When are they not an issue?
mitral regurg; grade 3 or less
Mitral regurg. is mainly a problem in ______ horses and the changes are ______.
high performance/racing; degenrative
T/F the louder an aortic regurg. murmur is, the worse it is.
f; loudness is not an indicator of severity; use pulse to help determine severity
Valvular degeneration and endocardiosis are two causes of this murmur in older horses.
Which rare murmur causes v-tach due to hemorrhage into the intraventricular septum?
aortic root fistula; ruptured sinus of velselva
Which serious dz of older stallions usually causes death with in a year, but causes low grade murmurs?
aortic root fistula
A febrile horse w/ wt.loss, and joint dz is most likely to have this cardiac pathology.
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