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what is not a factor in how violently or quietly a volcanoe errupts?
magma's depth inside a volcano's vennt
what is a volcanic bomb?
a semimolten piece of pyroclastic material larger than 64mm in size ejected as glowing lava
what type of volcano is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic depositis
which type of intrusive feature forms when magma is injected into fractures cutting across preexisting rock layers?
which type of landform develops at plate boundaries where one oceanic plate descends beneath another?
volcanic island arc
most intraplate volcanic activity occurs where
mantle plumes rise towards the surface within a plate
gasses escaping from volcanoes often include __________, ___________, nitrogen, and sulfur with lesser ammounts of chlorine, hydrogen, and argon
carbon dioxide, water vapor
the magma that feeds most volcanoes moves from a magma chamber toward the surface through _________
a volcanic ____________ forms when the rock in a pipe is resistant to erosion and remains standing above the surface after the rest of the volcano has worn away
a _______ forms as a flat laer when magma is forced between sedimentary layers near the surface
where slabs of oceanic lithosphere are subducted under continental lithosphere, a ___________ volcanisc arc can form
what does the heliocentric model of the solar system state?
that earth and other planets orbit the sun
after the middle ages, the astronomer who changed the model of the solar system by placing the sun at the center was
the most widely accepted model for the origin of the moon involves
a large body hitting Earth and ejecting debris that became the moon
the geocentric model of the solar system was proposed by the astronomers of ancient __________
the _________ motion of planets is when they appear to move eastward mong the stars, then stop and reverse motion
the Danish astronomer __________________ made precise measurements of the locations of several bodies in the solar system, especially Mars
the average distancebetween Earth and the sun is about ______ million km, or one ________________
150, astronomical unit
the earth is closest to the sun on Jan. 3 at _________, and farthest from the sun on about july 4 at _____________
because of ___________, the North Star will no longer be Polaris in severl thousand years
most of the moon's surface is covered by _________ which are densely-pitted, light-colored areas
how do mountains affect the ammount of precipitation that falls over an area?
the windward side of the mountains reciieves more precipitation
how do large bodies of water influence the climate?
downwind areas have cooler summers than inland areas
the Koppen climate classification system is used to classify climates acording to
mean monthly and annual temperature and precipitation in an area
faults in which movement is horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault surface are called
which of the following would not be considered part of orogenesis? folding or sedimentation
what is an accumulation of different sedimentary and metamorphic rocks combined with scraps of ocean crust called?
an accretionary wedge
according to the process of isostatic adjustment,
thick sections of crustal material float higher than thinner slabs
what is one difference between the way t planets and j planets are formed?
the t planets formed from only metals and silicate minerals
how does the diameter of the t planets and j planets compare?
the diameters of the j planets are much larger
the fact that mercury has no atmosohere is evidence that it
reflects a small % of the sunlight that hits it
one reaston that life as we know it is unlikely to exist on Venus id b/c
the surface temp is too high
when viewed from Earth, Mars appers to change colors most likely b/c
dust storms that last for weeks cause the atmosphere to change color
which planet has the lowest surface temp of any planet and an atmosphere composed mostly of nitrogen?
what does a prisim do?
separates visible light into its many colors by bending each wavelength at a different angle
what does the use of the Doppler effect tell astronomers about a star?
whether it's moving towards or away from earth
what advantage to space telescopes have over earth-based telescopes?
they dont have interference from the atmosphere
sunspots appear as darker areas on the sun's surface b/c they are
cooler than the rest of the surface
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