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this is from the tests

as the temperature of lava increases,

its viscosity decreases

what is not a factor in how violently or quietly a volcanoe errupts?

magma's depth inside a volcano's vennt

what is a volcanic bomb?

a semimolten piece of pyroclastic material larger than 64mm in size ejected as glowing lava

the particles produced involcanic eruptions are called

pyroclastic material

what plays a major part in determining the form of a volcano?

magma comopsition

the broad, dome-shaped volcanoes of hawaii are

sheild volcanoes

what type of volcano is fairly symmetrical and has both layers of lava and pyroclastic depositis

composite cone

what is a caldera

a large depression in a volcano

lava plateaus form when

fluid basaltic lava flows from fissures

structured that form from the cooling and hardening of magma underneath earth's surface are


which type of intrusive feature forms when magma is injected into fractures cutting across preexisting rock layers?


what is NOT true of a batholith

it is often part of a small sill

magma forms when solid rock in the crust and upper mantle...


what is a small part of a batholith that is not yet fully exposed


when a common type of basaltic lava hardens, it forms aa, which has

a rough, jagged surface

most sheild volcanoes have grown from the ocean floor to form


which type of landform develops at plate boundaries where one oceanic plate descends beneath another?

volcanic island arc

at divergent plate boundaries in the ocean, magma rises and melts because of

a decrease in pressure

what are the landforms at divergent ocean plate boundaries

oceanic ridges

most intraplate volcanic activity occurs where

mantle plumes rise towards the surface within a plate

rhyolitic lavas are very viscus b/c they have a high _________ content


a _______ lava flow resembles the twisted braisa in rope as it cools and hardens


gasses escaping from volcanoes often include __________, ___________, nitrogen, and sulfur with lesser ammounts of chlorine, hydrogen, and argon

carbon dioxide, water vapor

the accumulationof fluid basaltic lava produces a ________ volcano


the most explosive volcanic erruptions come from the _________________ volcano

composite cone

saturated volcanic debris that rapidly moves down steep, volcanic slopes as a mudflow is a


the magma that feeds most volcanoes moves from a magma chamber toward the surface through _________


a volcanic ____________ forms when the rock in a pipe is resistant to erosion and remains standing above the surface after the rest of the volcano has worn away


another name for a composite cone is a


descending into Earth's interior, temperature, as well as pressure on rock,


a _______ forms as a flat laer when magma is forced between sedimentary layers near the surface


the change in temperature with depth is the __________________ gradient


where slabs of oceanic lithosphere are subducted under continental lithosphere, a ___________ volcanisc arc can form


the goecentric model has the plantes

and the moon and sun orbiting earth

what does the heliocentric model of the solar system state?

that earth and other planets orbit the sun

who was the first person to belive in the heliocentric model?


after the middle ages, the astronomer who changed the model of the solar system by placing the sun at the center was


which astronomer discovered that the planets move in ellipses?


Galileo's most important contributin to astronomy was his discovery

of Mars

Isaac Newton was the first person to formulate and test

universal gravitation

the spinning of the Earth on it's axis is called


what is earth's motion in its path around the sun called?


what is precession?

the slow change in the direction in which Earth's axis tilts

what causes the moon's phases?

the motion of the moon and the sunlight reflected from its surface

the synodic month is _____ days long

29 1/2

a solar eclipse occurs when

the moon casts a dark shadow on Earth

during a total eclipse, the moon

moves into Earth's umbra

what causes the erosion of rocks on the moon's surface?

impacts from particles from space

what is the soil-like layer on the moon?

the lunar regolith

long valleys or trenches associated with maria are


which is not present on the moon? atmosphere or gravity?


the most widely accepted model for the origin of the moon involves

a large body hitting Earth and ejecting debris that became the moon

what feature of the moon is oldest?


the geocentric model of the solar system was proposed by the astronomers of ancient __________


the planetary system of ptomely had the planets moving in circular orbits around___________


the _________ motion of planets is when they appear to move eastward mong the stars, then stop and reverse motion


the Danish astronomer __________________ made precise measurements of the locations of several bodies in the solar system, especially Mars

Tycho Brahe

the average distancebetween Earth and the sun is about ______ million km, or one ________________

150, astronomical unit

the mass of an object is the measure of the total ammount of ___________ it contains


the earth movement that causes night and day is called _________


the earth is closest to the sun on Jan. 3 at _________, and farthest from the sun on about july 4 at _____________

perihelion, aphelion

because of ___________, the North Star will no longer be Polaris in severl thousand years


the moon is closest to earth at ________ and farthest from earth at _______

perigee, apogee

most of the moon's surface is covered by _________ which are densely-pitted, light-colored areas


the two most important elements of climate are:

temperature and precipitation

what describes latitude?

distance north or south of the equator

as latitude decreases,

solar energy decreases

the climate in the temperate zone is

warm in summers, cool in winters

as elevation increases, the climate is


how do mountains affect the ammount of precipitation that falls over an area?

the windward side of the mountains reciieves more precipitation

how do large bodies of water influence the climate?

downwind areas have cooler summers than inland areas

how do global winds influence climate?

global winds move warm air towards the poles

what process describes how vegetation influences precipitation


the Koppen climate classification system is used to classify climates acording to

mean monthly and annual temperature and precipitation in an area

according to the Koppen system,

humid mid tropical climates don't experience winters

humid tropical climate regions are located

on either side of the equator

the _ zones are located between 25* north and south latitude


a mountain will generally have a _ climate than a community at sea level


once their strength is exceded, mountains near the surface act like


under what conditions do rocks exhibit ductile deformation?

high confining pressure

where is brittle deformation generally seen?

in rocks with strong internal molecular bonds

a material that undergoes tensional stress tends to


which is not a type pf stress seen in rocks? tensional stress or shear stress

tensional stress

what is a characteristic typical of folding in sedimentary rock layers?


faults are generally closely associated with


what describes the movement of crust in a normal fault?

movement is mostly vertical

faults in which movement is horizontal and parallel to the strike of the fault surface are called

strike-slip faults

which of the following would not be considered part of orogenesis? folding or sedimentation


and example of a folded mountains can bee seen in

the Alps in Europe

in a typical fault block mountain, large blocks of crust are

uplifted along normal faults

a downwarped structure with a circular shape is called a


what can be produced at an ocean-continental convergence?

a continental volcanic arc

what is an accumulation of different sedimentary and metamorphic rocks combined with scraps of ocean crust called?

an accretionary wedge

at c-c convergence, _____ mountains result


an example of a mountain range formed at divergent boundaries is

the mid-Atlantic ridge

what is associated with the process of orogenesis at divergent boundaries?

ocean mountain chains

according to the process of isostatic adjustment,

thick sections of crustal material float higher than thinner slabs

b/c of isostacy, a mountain will ultimately

be eroded near sea level

in domes, the oldest rocks are at the _____


most mountain building occours at

convergent plate boundaries

which planet is not considered a terrestrial planet? neptune or mars


the largest of the terrestrial planets is


the densities of the Jovian planets are

not more than 1.5 times the density of water

according to scientists, the solar system formed from

a rotating nebula

what is one difference between the way t planets and j planets are formed?

the t planets formed from only metals and silicate minerals

how does the diameter of the t planets and j planets compare?

the diameters of the j planets are much larger

the fact that mercury has no atmosohere is evidence that it

reflects a small % of the sunlight that hits it

one reaston that life as we know it is unlikely to exist on Venus id b/c

the surface temp is too high

when viewed from Earth, Mars appers to change colors most likely b/c

dust storms that last for weeks cause the atmosphere to change color

what is the mass of Jupiter?

2 1/2 time the mass of all the planets and their moons combined

which of the jovian planets have rings?

all: Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Jupiter

which planet has the lowest surface temp of any planet and an atmosphere composed mostly of nitrogen?


which planet has an axis of rotation parallel to with the plane of its orbit?


most asteroids lie between the orbits of

mars and jupiter

what is true about asteroids

recent impact craters on the moon were likely caused by asteroids

what is true about comets?

comets are held together by frozen gasses

the Kuiper belt is a region beyond neptune containing

comets with short orbit periods

the nucleus of halley's comet is approx

16 km wide

scientists have been able to estimate the age of our solar system by dating


what is not a source of meteorites?

rocky chunks from neighboring solar systems

___ is the only planet that cannot be classified as either t or j


the period of rotation for any of the j plantes is _____ than earth's period of rotation


the way people thought the universe was created was by the

nebular theory

Earth's twin:


a meterorid that reaches Earth is called a


what does a prisim do?

separates visible light into its many colors by bending each wavelength at a different angle

what type of visible light has the longest wavelength? (color)


a star's spectrum can tell astronomers

the star's chemical comosition

which type of spectrum does the radiation from most stars produce?

absorption spectrum

what does the use of the Doppler effect tell astronomers about a star?

whether it's moving towards or away from earth

a typical incandescent light bulb produces a

continuous spectrum

what does a refracting telescope use ot produce an image?

a lens

why is chromatic aberration a problem for astronomers?

it weakens the images of stars

what does a reflecting telescope use to produce an image

a mirror

what is not true about most large optical telescopes?

they are refracting telescopes

what do radio telescopes use to focus radio waves?

large dishes

radio telescopes measure the galaxy's distribution of

hydrogen from which stars are formed

what advantage to space telescopes have over earth-based telescopes?

they dont have interference from the atmosphere

the Chandra x-ray observaory is used to study

black holes

the visible surface of the sun is its


streams of electrons and protons that shoot out from the sun's corona are the solar


sunspots appear as darker areas on the sun's surface b/c they are

cooler than the rest of the surface

what is an effect of solar flares on earth?


when the sun produces energy, it consumes hydrogen and produces


the sun can continue to exist in its present state for about another

10 billion years

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