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34 terms

Ch. 5 Language

Ch.4 Language from Rubenstein, 8th edition
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Conquest Theory
Theory that argues that language diffused primarily through warfare and conquest.
Language Replacement
Replacing language with different symbols or words that represent the same thing.
Extinct Language
A language that was once used in the past but is no longer spoken or read by anyone in the world today.
Toponym
The name given to a place on Earth.
standard language
dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication
BRP
British Received Pronunciation; well-known because it is commonly used by politicians, broadcasters, and actors
Franglais
The widespread use of English in the French language.
Spanglish
A combination of Spanish and English.
Indo-european family
this family is divided into eight branches, Indo-iranian, Romance, Germanc, Balto-slavic, Albanian, Armenian, Greek, and Celtic.
Sino-tibetan family
this family of languages is spoken in the People's Republic of China, which is the worlds most populous state and it has more than one billion people.
language
A system of communication through speech and a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.
literary tradition
A system of written communication that many languages have.
Renfrew Model
a belief by Colin Renfrew that argues that the first speakers of Proto-Indian-European lived 2,000 years before the Kurgans, in eastern Anatolia, part of present-day Turkey
agricultural theory
a general proposition used as a principle of explanation for a class of phenomena relating to the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively few differences in grammer and vocabulary.
Language Family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
language convergence
Diffusion caused long isolated languages to make contact and therefore to develop similarities.
language divergence
A basic process of language formation; it is the differation of a language over time and space
Official Language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
Dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguisted by vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation
monolingual
countries in which only ONE language is spoken
multilingual states
countries in which more than one language is widely spoken
lingua franca
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
pidgin langauge
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different langauges
vernacular
expressed or written in the native language of a place, as literary works
accent
prominence of a syllable in terms of differential loudness, or of pitch, or length, or of a combination of these
ideogram
the system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symvol represents and idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
isolated language
a language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Esperanto
An artificial language invented in 1887 by L. L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), a Polish physician and philologist, and intended for international use. It is based on word roots common to the major European languages.
Orthography
The part of language study concerned with letters and spelling.
creole
of or relating to Creoles or their language
bi-lingualism
the ability to speak two languages
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family.
Isogloss
A boundary that seperates regions in which different language usages predominate