Theory that argues that language diffused primarily through warfare and conquest.
Replacing language with different symbols or words that represent the same thing.
A language that was once used in the past but is no longer spoken or read by anyone in the world today.
The name given to a place on Earth.
dialect that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication
British Received Pronunciation; well-known because it is commonly used by politicians, broadcasters, and actors
The widespread use of English in the French language.
A combination of Spanish and English.
this family is divided into eight branches, Indo-iranian, Romance, Germanc, Balto-slavic, Albanian, Armenian, Greek, and Celtic.
this family of languages is spoken in the People's Republic of China, which is the worlds most populous state and it has more than one billion people.
A system of communication through speech and a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.
A system of written communication that many languages have.
a belief by Colin Renfrew that argues that the first speakers of Proto-Indian-European lived 2,000 years before the Kurgans, in eastern Anatolia, part of present-day Turkey
a general proposition used as a principle of explanation for a class of phenomena relating to the science, art, or occupation concerned with cultivating land, raising crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively few differences in grammer and vocabulary.
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Diffusion caused long isolated languages to make contact and therefore to develop similarities.
A basic process of language formation; it is the differation of a language over time and space
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents
A regional variety of a language distinguisted by vocabulary, spelling and pronunciation
countries in which only ONE language is spoken
countries in which more than one language is widely spoken
a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
a form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different langauges
expressed or written in the native language of a place, as literary works
prominence of a syllable in terms of differential loudness, or of pitch, or length, or of a combination of these
the system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symvol represents and idea or a concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
a language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
An artificial language invented in 1887 by L. L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), a Polish physician and philologist, and intended for international use. It is based on word roots common to the major European languages.
The part of language study concerned with letters and spelling.
of or relating to Creoles or their language
the ability to speak two languages
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago. Differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, and archaeological evidence can confirm that the branches derived from the same family.
A boundary that seperates regions in which different language usages predominate