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81 terms

Civics FInal review

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Sovereign
having supreme power
Unicameral
one-house legislature
ferderalism
division of power between the federal gov. and the states
suffrage
the right to vote
slander
false charges and malicious oral statements about someone
sabotage
An action taken to destroy something or to prevent it from working properly; to take such destructive action
patronage
practice of giving government jobs to supporters and friends
writ of certiorari
a common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferior jurisdiction demanding the record of a particular case
ratification
formal approval
amendment
A change to the Constitution
exculsionary rule
improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial
probable cause
reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion
civil liberties
the guarantees of the safety of persons, opinions, and property from the arbitrary acts of government, including freedom of speech and freedom of religion
gerrymandering
the drawing of legislative district boundaries to benefit a party, group, or incumbent
discharge petition
Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
executive agreement
an agreement between the President and the leader of another country
framers
writers of the Constitution
constitutionalism
a constitutional system of government (usually with a written constitution)
symbolic speech
an act that conveys a political message
free exercise clause
the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
establishment clause
Clause in the First Amendment that says the government may not establish an official religion.
quorum
a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business
presidential elector
president & vice president were chosen by a special body
federal budget
a plan for the federal government's revenues and spending for the coming year
bicameral
composed of two legislative bodies
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
treason
an act of deliberate betrayal
libel
false and defamatory printed (or written) statement
constituents
people a member of Congress represents
apportionment
Distribution of representatives among the states based on the population of each state
recognition
the exclusive power of a president to recognize (establish formal diplomatic relations with) foreign states
initiative
voters can propose by petition constitutional amendments.
referendum
a process in which a legislative measure is referred to the state's voters for final approval or rejection.
item veto
the governor my veto one or more items in a bill without rejecting the entire measure.
pardon
a governor may release a person from the legal consequences of a crime.
commute
a governor may reduce the sentence imposed by a court.
reprieve
postpones the execution of a sequence of a sentence.
parole
allows the release of a prisoner short of the completion of the term which he or she was originally sentenced.
county
a major unit of local government.
parishes
Louisiana calls counties this....
boroughs
alaska calls counties this....
townships
found as units of local government in those states or can be subdivisions
special district
an independent unit created to preform one or more related governmental functions at the local level.
mayor-council government
the oldest and still the most widely used type of city government
strong-mayor government
mayor heads the citys administration, has the power to hire and fire employees and prepares the budget.
weak-mayor government
the mayor has much less formal power.
commission form
commissioners are popularly elected.
council-manager form
a form of municipal government in which voters elect a city council, which hires a city manager responsible for the day-to-day operations of the city
zoning
a zoning ordinance places each parcel of land in the city into one of three zones: residential, commercial, or industrial.
metropolitan areas
the cites and the areas around them have taken several forms.
urbanization
as the percentage of the population of a state living in cities of more than 250,00 people or in suburbs of cities with more than 50,00
sales tax
tax placed by the purchaser.
regressive tax
one that is not the same for all people and not geared to the ability to pay
income tax
levied on the income of individuals and/or corporations, yields almost a third of state revenues today.
progressive tax
the higher the income, the higher the tax rate.
property tax
chief source of income for local governments
assessment
the process of determining the value of property to be taxed is called this....
inheritance tax
one levied on the beneficiary's share of an estate
estate tax
one levied directly on the full estate itself
common law
unwritten, judge made law that has developed over centuries from those generally accepted ideas of right and wrong that have gained judicial recognition.
precedent
abided by earlier court decisions
criminal law
criminal case is one brought by the state against a person accused of committing a crime
civil law
portion of the law relating to human conduct, to disputes between private parties not covered in by criminal law
petit jury
the trial jury
appellate jurisdiction
their original jurisdiction, where it exists, is limited to a few specific kinds of cases
delegated powers
only those powers granted to it in the constitution.
expressed powers
those delegated to the national government spelled out in the constitution.
implied powers
not expressly stated in the constitution but are reasonably implied
inherent powers
not expressed in constitution but inherent.
reserved powers
powers held by the states in the federal system
exclusive powers
exercised only the national government.
concurrent powers
both national government and states posses and exercise.
proprietary colonies
still under crown rule but governor was appointed by the proprietor
royal colonies
direct control of the crown
Charter Colonies
governors were elected each year no kings approval needed.
magna carta
1215, includes fundamental rights as trail by jury and due process
petition of right
limited the kings power by demanding that the king not imprison political criitics without trial by jury.
english bill of rights
prohibited a standing army in peacetime, except with the consent of parliament and required that all parliamentary elections be free.
Necessary and proper clause
gives congress the power to make laws that are necessary and proper.
three fifths compromise
3/5 counting vote for african americans who can vote.
Due process clause
no state shall deprive any person of life liberty or property without due process of law.