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30 terms

Folds, Faults, Earthquakes, and Volcanoes Quiz

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transform fault
Area where the earth's lithospheric plates move in opposite but parallel directions along a fracture (fault) in the lithosphere.
anticline
an upward fold in rock formed by compression of Earth's crust
syncline
a downward fold in rock formed by compression in earth's crust
reverse fault
rocks above the fault surface move up and over the rocks below the fault surface
normal fault
a fault where tension pulls the rocks apart
thrust fault
a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression
isostaic adjustment
compression caused by glaciers
epicenter
point on earth's surface directly above an earthquake
focus
the pint below earth's surface were energy is released in the form of seismic waves
elastic rebound theory
how regular earthquakes form
seismograph
an instrument that is used to register earthquake waves and record the time that each arrived
richter scale
used to describe the strength of an earthquake based on the height of the lines on the sesmigram
tsunami
sesmic sea waves that begin over an earthquake focas and can be highly destructive when it crashes
where do most earthquakes occor?
convergent plate boundries/over active geologic faults
why do earthquakes occur in Massachusetts
the
how do scientist locate and measure earthquakes?
sesmic graph
what hazards are associated with earthquakes
large objects could fall on you, houses can be shaken to the ground, in can shake and explode radioactive matiriel, it can cause tsunamis
where is the aafest place to be durring an earthquake?
away from anything...especially the epicenter
what number on the richer scale do big earthquaes have
8.5-9.5
where is the ring of fire located and what happens there?
the pacific ring of volcanoes, a line of active volcanoes that traces the edges of te subducting pacific plat, underwater
hot spot
a smalll area of the mantle that remains extreamly hot for a long period of time
tephra
bits of rock or solidified lava dropped from the air during an explosive volcanic eruption; ranges in size from volcanic ash to volcanic bombs and blocks
lava
rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos
pyroclastic flows
scalding avalanche of ash and hot, toxic expanding gas, traveling very fast down the flank of a volcano
lahars
mudflows (water mixed with ash) often folled by eruptions
what is the difference between continental on oceanic volcanic eruptions?
oceanic plates; made out of basalt, produces maffic magma high in magnisium and iron produced quiet non explodive eruptions
continental; made our of granite, produces felsic magma high in silicaproduces explosive eruptions
what determines if an earthquake will be violent or quiet?
if it is high in silica i t will be violent because that bulilds up preassure
how did most volcanoes form?
divergent plate boiundries convergen plate boundries and hot spots
what are signals that a volcano might erupt
occorances of earthquakes changes in gasses (sulfer) a buldge in the side of a volcano
what are some of the dangers of earthquakes
lava can destroy rhoads and building nd can set things on fire, gass can also be poisinous