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Kinesiology Test 2
Terms in this set (158)
What affects neuroplasticity?
Repetition, Intensity, Time, Salience, Specificity, Age (not IQ)
T/F If synaptic activation is strong and frequent, new or stronger motor pathways are formed.
Neuroplasticity is a ___ rather than a single event.
Intensity can be modulated either through ___ (using heavier weights), ___ (moving faster), or __ (performing more reps in a defined period).
load, speed, density
rehabilitation programs often fail to equip athletes with a robust injury-resistant body because they do not adequately address the concepts of ___ and ___.
neuroplasticity and motor relearning
the brain's ability to change the wiring of neural networks and adapt to new information.
The three parts of the brain that are responsible for anxiety and depression are the:
hippocampus, amygdala, prefrontal cortex
A ___ is a highly specialized cell that receives, processes, and transmits electrical and chemical signals to neighboring neurons.
a neuron has three basic components
dendrite (receives the incoming signal), cell body (processes the signal), axon (transmits the signal)
when the brain encodes information, ___ processing occurs unintentionally with minimal effort, while ___ processing is deliberate, requiring conscious, energy-burning attention.
How can we encode information learned more automatically?
The more closely we replicate the conditions at the moment of learning, the easier the remembering.
A stressed brain can learn just as easily as a non-stressed brain. T/F
Your body's defense mechanism when dealing with stress, the release of ___ and ___, was built only to deal with short-term responses. Chronic stress can damage the cells of the ____ (part of brain), crippling your ability to learn and remember.
adrenaline, cortisol; hippocampus
Neurons that ________ together _________ together
repetition is good for...
establishing and reinforcing neural networks and motor pathways.
Variation in training is good for...
increasing dendritic growth and creating new neural pathways.
What are the three of the symptoms of a dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid?
headache, neck pain, eye pain
There are no ligaments connecting the vertebral arches. T/F
The Scalenes grouping of muscles are more superficial to the sternocleidomastoid. T/F
4 types of ligaments between vertebral arches
ligamentum flavum, supraspinous, interspinous, intertransverse
Most herniated discs happen between the ______ vertebrae
a disc that bulges out from between the vertebral bodies is called a
the TA should have anticipatory timing, which menas it should fire ___ msec before upper extremity movement and ___ msec before lower extremity movements. Delayed anticipatory timing is associated with ___ ___ ____;
30, 110, lower back pain
Besides the TA, the two other muscles that should have anticipatory timing are the __ and ___.
multifidus and the diaphragm
erector spinae from most medial to most lateral.
spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
Efficient, coordinated and functional movement requires muscles of adequate __ and ____ but also adequate control by the __ ____ to fire the proper sequence.
strength, endurance; nervous system
how many degrees of flexion does a healthy lumbar spine have?
it is acceptable to allow two vertebrae to do most of the extension/flexion work for the spine T/F
The head and neck are moved __ times an hour whether you are awake or asleep.
Which two vertebrae have no vertebral bodies?
atlas and axis
The sternocleidomastoids are called the __ of the ___.
obliques of the neck
based on the name of the sternocleidomastoid, we know it attaches to which three bony landmarks?
sternum, clavicle, mastoid process
the cervical spine can rotate __ degrees to either side and laterally flex __ degrees to either side.
Which spinal segments are capable of flexion and extension?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar
which spinal segments are capable of rotation?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar
spinal segments are capable of lateral flexion?
cervical, thoracic, lumbar
signs that a person might have scoliosis are:
shoulder height, asymmetrical scapulae, asymmetry of waist, rotation in rib cage, rotation of pelvis
The shape of the ___ ____ and the facings of the ___ ____ dictate how much spinal extension is available in that region of the spine.
spinous processes; facet joints
external/internal rotation (plane)
horizontal plane, coronal/frontal plane, sagittal
gemellus superior action
gluteus medius (coronal/frontal plane)
gluteus medius (horizontal plane)
dysfunctional movement patterns can be caused by problems in your
form closure, force closure, motor control, emotions, and awareness
When the pelvis is in a left lateral pelvic tilt, the left side ___ and right side ____ are shortened, while the left side ___ and the right side ____ are lengthened.
abductors, adductors; adductors, abductors
When the pelvis is in a right lateral pelvic tilt, the left side ___ and right side ___ are shortened, while the left side ___ and right side ___ are lengthened.
adductors, abductors; abductors, adductors
For hamstring tendinopathy, the best exercise guideline is to use __ muscle contractions.
What should you do while exercising to stop hip "clicking"?
decrease range of motion or load
List the three ligaments found in the hip joint
iliofemoral ligament, ischiofemoral ligament, pubofemoral ligament
Which of the three ligaments in the hip is the strongest ligament in the body?
The six deep rotators of the hip are activated by __
Which bone is the center of your body?
The psoas can ___ the hip, but also create a ____ curvature of the lumbar spine.
The angle of inclination of the ____ of the ______ can determine knee, ankle, and foot alignment.
Normal hip degree
greater than 125 degrees
less than 125 degrees
men have a wider subpubic angle than women. T/F
The acetabular labrum loves compressive forces.
What does FAI stand for? What causes it?
Femoroacetabular impingement. When the femoral head is constantly subluxating, the body grows more bone in the acetabulum and/or femoral head to try to set the femur back in the socket.
The femur is set back furuthest in the acetabulum when the hip is at ___degrees of ___ (movement of the hip).
90 degrees of flexion
The longest and strongest bone in the body is the ____.
___% of walking is balancing on one leg.
The pelvic halves are called _____ or __ _____.
innominates or os coxae
The ___ transfers forces from the ilium to the tibia.
When flexing the hip joint, the external rotation of the femur _____.
which one of the quadriceps crosses both the hip and the knee joints?
The insertion (distal attachment) of the quadriceps is at the _____.
The gluteus maximus can perform which actions at the hip joint?
extension, external rotation
What are the names of the six small muscles?
piriformis, gemellus superior, gemellus inferior, obturator externus, obturator internus, quadratus femoris
Which two muscles is the iliopsoas made up of? (Dancer's muscle)
iliacus and the psoas major
what bony protuberance limits external rotation?
the ___ _____ of the hip joint largely determines the natural external rotation.
Noises in the groin when lifting the leg to the side are often due to tension in the ____ muscle.
The external rotation of the hip should always be measured in an extended hip joint. Why?
There's greater range of motion in flexion because the structures at the front of the hip joint are released.
The term connective tissue refers to what?
Which builds faster? Muscle or fascia?
List 2 benefits of the myofascial release techniques.
rehydrates tissue through capillary refill and restores elasticity
Myofascial release that uses sustained pressure to loosen and lengthen constricted fascia. It breaks down ____ between the tissues and softens and re-aligns them, freeing up muscles and allowing easier and more effective movement.
The body is made up of ___ (cells) and the ____ _____ (what's going on outside of and between cells).
fibroblasts; extracellular matrix
Type I ___ is stronger than steel
List two protocols that fascia responds to
plyometrics and stretch shortening cycle (stretching and proprioceptive input)
healthy fascia tissue is laid down in a haphazard arrangement. T/F
Unhealthy fascial tissue is laid down in a haphazard arrangement.
Slow and sustained pressure particularly applied on a tangential angle has a calming effect on the autonomic nervous system. T/F
List the four universal myofascial sling systems.
The lateral sling, the posterior oblique sling, the anterior oblique sling, the posterior longitudinal sling
The posterior oblique sling system connects the ___ to the _____.
latissimus dorsi; gluteus maximus
Myofascial sling systems aid in force transmission. T/F
List all four Fascial Movement Variables
Bounce, Sense, Hydrate, Expand
What is the name of the fascia that acts like a body stocking? .
Andry Vleeming once said that Fascia is your ___ _____.
what major muscle group extends the knee, and what major group flexes the knee?
quadriceps extend, hamstrings flex
what does the term q angle refer to?
angle of descent of the femur from the hip to the knee.
The patellar tendon inserts into the ____ _____.
Where do the hamstrings attach distally?
Medial side of the knee
lateral side of the knee
medial side of the knee
The four ____ of the knee allow the patella to slide freely underneath the skin while bending and straightening the knee.
How many heads does the gastrocnemius muscle have?
Which femur is this? how can you tell?
medial condyle is bigger, so that's a right femur.
the base of the patella is ____ (superior/inferior), and the apex of the patella is ___ (superior/inferior).
anterior cruciate ligament
medial collateral ligament
lateral collateral ligament
posterior cruciate ligament
the ACL stops the tibia from moving ____ to the femur
The PCL stops the tibia from moving ___ to the femur.
In women, with the knee extended, the q angle should be less than __ degrees.
In men, with the knee extended the q angle should be less than ___ degrees.
A normal amount of tibial torsion in adults is ___ to ___ degrees.
Walking with feet turned out outside the dance studio creates a healthy functional movement pattern which strengthens the knee.
Biomechanically speaking, a rotation in the extended knee joint is not possible. However, it is common in dancers to be able to rotated an extended knee joint due to:
hypermobility in the knee.
The ____ meniscus is less mobile and thus more prone to ____ forces.
In the standing leg a knee hyperextension of about ___ degrees seems to be a good compromise between a stable leg axis and an aesthetic line. In the working leg, ___ hyperextension can be used.
The iliotibial band is a strong, tendon-like ___ that is tensed from above by the fibers of the ___ ____ and the ____ ______ ______ (or TFL).
fascia; gluteus maximus, tensor fasciae latae
The ____ muscle rotates the thigh outward and at the same time holds the medial rotation of the tibia to counter the movement.
The medial and lateral menisci are located at the top of the _____.
what explains the increased mobility of the lateral meniscus compared to the medial meniscus?
the medial tibial plateau forms a hollow where it's embedded. the lateral tibial plateau is more like a hill on which it slides.
the task of the menisci is to increase the ___ ____ of the knee joint and thus to evenly distribute ____ throughout the entire knee, both when standing and during movement.
contact area; forces
what allows the knee to have more mobility side to side when the knee is flexed?
the collateral ligaments relax when the knee is flexed
the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments internally joint the __ ____ with the ____.
tibial plateau; femur
when do they provide most stability to the knee?
What bone rests in the femoral groove?
The patella protects the muscle during ___ and provides better leverage for the knee during ____.
When the femur rotates medially, and the tibia rotates laterally the cruciate ligaments _____ and the stability in the knee is lost.
When the femur rotates laterally, and the tibia rotates medially the cruciate ligaments become ____ and the stability of the knee ____.
What is genu valgus? how would you identify it?
Genu valgus is when the joint of the knee angles inward. "knock knees"
If the knee is allowed to go into hyperextension, there is much less ___ area, much greater ____, and now soft tissue is important for knee ____.
contact; stresses; stability
When straightening your legs from a plie, in order to stop in a neutral position, rather than going back into hyperextension, you should co-contract what two muscle groups?
hamstrings and quadriceps
As your knees go out over your toes, the amount of ____ in your knee increases.
What is the connection between coxa valga, coxa vara, genu valgus, and genu varum?
coxa valga is associated with genu varum (bowlegs), Coxa vara is associated with genu valgum (knock knees)
anterior knee pain can be caused by 2 dysfunctions which has terms that are often used interchangeably: ___ ______ and ____ ____ ____ _____,
chondromalacia patellae; patello femoral pain syndrome
Issues with knee problems can be treated by doing what?
restore proper biomechanics and alignment
It is not a problem to walk with out-toeing in everyday life T/F
jumping increases femorotibial forces to ____ times your body weight.
Jumping increases patellofemoral forces to ____ times your body weight
The femur slides anteriorly on extension and posteriorly on flexion of the knee in which kinetic chain?
closed kinetic chain
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