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sports and music
Suppose you are a 9-year-old boy under Plato's tutelage. What would you most likely be studying?
restrictive child labor laws
One of the important changes in Western countries, which began to define the "Age of Adolescence," was
A time when teens who engage in trade, crafts, farming, and apprenticeships is known as?
working in a coal mine, factory, or farm
Imagine you are a 13-year-old boy living in the United States in 1902 pre child labor laws. You most likely would be
child study movement
G. Stanley Hall is credited as the initiator of the
age of stability
According to the text, there are five characteristics that distinguish emerging adulthood from other age periods. Which characteristic does NOT describe emerging adulthood?
emerging adulthood is a phenomenon that exists mainly in
Which scenario best summarizes the ambiguity felt by emerging adults?
Mallory feels in-between - not quite adolescent, not quite adult.
Nineteen-year-old William believes that he "became an adult" when he got a job, moved out of his parents' house, and became responsible for "paying his way" and making his own life decisions. William's definition of adulthood best reflects the
individualistic values of the American majority culture.
In the scientific method, the sample is meant to represent the
Consent forms typically include all of these except for _________________________
which journal the results will be published in.
In his research study, Dr. Johnson gives participants false feedback about their performance. Consequently, Dr. Johnson should use __________ after the research session is over.
An advantage of questionnaires with a closed question format is that they
facilitate data collection and analysis with large samples.
Living amongst and observing the people being studied is most closely associated with which of the following research methods?
Beryl, a researcher studying adolescents' friendships, wants to understand her research participants' unique lives in-depth and from their own perspectives. The best choice of method would be
The main disadvantage of the case study method of research is that
it is difficult to generalize the results.
Mark has constructed a test to measure adolescents' creativity. After administering the test many times with different groups of adolescents, Mark found that the test consistently measured adolescents' ability to solve math problems. This test is
reliable, but not valid.
What is the simplest form of experimental research?
Collecting data from two groups - control and experimental.
A distinctive feature of Indian culture is
the caste system.
The idea that young people around the world are increasingly experiencing similar environments is most closely associated with which of the following concepts?
The physical and biological changes of puberty result from changes that occur in the
In which of the following part(s) of the anatomy is puberty initiated?
The two classes of sex hormones are
estrogens and androgens
The adolescent growth spurt occurs approximately
two years earlier for girls than for boys
Which of the following best illustrates the concept of asynchronicity?
Some body parts grow faster than others during puberty.
menarche refers to
a female's first menstrual period
Which of the following is NOT associated with primary sex characteristics? Development of the
Which of the following does NOT belong to the category of secondary sex characteristics?
sperm and egg production
Which of the following physical changes occur for males and females alike during puberty?
Skin becomes oilier.
Which of the following best represents the health status of emerging adults? Emerging adulthood is the period when a person is
the least susceptible to physical illnesses.
Which of the following statements most accurately represents the relation between pubertal timing and technology? In general, puberty begins
earlier in countries where better nutrition and medical care are more widely available.
Which of the following is associated with historical evidence that technology influences pubertal timing?
which of the following best defines reaction range?
genetically determined range of potential
According to cross-cultural research, puberty rituals are more common for
According to recent research, which of the following best represents the effects of early maturation for girls in Western societies? Early maturing girls are
at risk for higher incidence of depressed moods
According to the text, why is early maturation such a problem for girls in the West?
Because Western cultures value thinness in females' appearances.
Jamie became physically mature at a younger age than most peers. In high school, Jamie was popular, had a positive self-image, yet experienced more temper outbursts than peers. At the age of 37, Jamie is a sociable person living a more conventional lifestyle than many peers. Most likely, what is Jamie's gender?
Gina is eighteen years old and feels that she is no longer as close to her parents as she was when she was a child. In fact, she has moved away from the religious commune where she was raised and is engaged to the boyfriend she met at college. This scenario is consistent with which of the following concepts?
During adolescence and emerging adulthood, autonomy increases along with _____________ genotype-environment interactions.
According to genotype-environment theory, we create our own environments based on our
What factor is considered to be the "driving force" in Piaget's theory of stage development?
Piaget proposed that the active construction of reality takes place through the use of schemes. Schemes are
mental structures for organizing and interpreting information
In terms of Piaget's theory of cognitive development, what statement does NOT belong?
Hypothetical-deductive reasoning is defined as
engaging in a systematic test of possible solutions.
Lorraine is a 14-year-old girl who knows when she is studying she needs to monitor her comprehension. Lorraine is being
The primary purpose of pragmatism is to enhance logical thinking with an awareness of
practical constraints of real-life situations
Which statement concerning reflective judgment is most accurate? Reflective judgment is the
capacity to evaluate the logical coherence of evidence.
In contrast to emerging adults, adolescents tend to engage in
Cam and Sue are young college students discussing capital punishment. While they disagree on their views, Sue understands the merits of Cam's position. What stage of reflective judgment would Sue be displaying?
There are two types of short-term memory: one type is involved in the input and storage of new information, the other type of short-term memory is known as
The average units of information stored in short-term memory is
Fifteen-year-old Donny can read his math textbooks quickly. His little sister, Marie, also reads her math books, but it takes her longer and she stumbles over some words. Donny is demonstrating greater
Who best typifies someone employing divided attention?
Jay, who is listening to Eminem and studying for a math test
The term 'adolescent egocentrism' refers to an adolescents' beliefs that
everyone is watching and judging them.
Mrs. Nichol is trying to explain to her son that everyone has bad hair days and it's not the end of the world. Little Jack refuses to leave the house because he knows the humiliation he will endure will go on for months. This shows an example of
According to the text, optimistic bias is defined as
the tendency to assume that accidents, diseases, and other misfortunes are more likely to happen to others than ourselves.
Jared and his dad are working on Jared's calculus homework. While Jared is quick to respond when he sees information that he learned in class, Jared's dad, Greg, uses his years of experience to figure out the answer. As compared to Greg, Jared possesses better
Rupal and her dad are working on Rupal's English homework. While Rupal is quick to respond when she sees information that she learned in class, Rupal's dad, Genoe, uses his years of experience to figure out the answer. As compared to Rupal, Genoe possesses better
Tony is a 12th-grade boy who is having trouble learning about anatomy. Seeing this, Tony's teacher has asked Gladys, a bright classmate of Tony's, to help him understand the concepts he's having trouble with. Deciding to have Gladys help Tony learn anatomy, the teacher is helping Tony work within his
zone of proximal development.
What process functions to keep the brain's electrical signals on one path and increase processing speed?
All of the following are part of Cultural beliefs except ____________________________________.
the cognitive skills of members
Bill is wrestling with his desires. He is tempted to steal a bicycle he saw in an unlocked garage, but he has not yet decided whether to do it. Bill's mental dilemma shows us that he is beginning to exert
Providing consolation, guidance, and hope to people confronting existential questions defines the concept of
sources of meaning
The contrast between individualism and collectivism is best captured in a discussion about
variations in cultural beliefs
If you were writing a research paper about collectivistic and individualistic beliefs, one caution you would have to keep in mind would be
these categories describe overall tendencies for beliefs, but individual differences exist.
Tish is a 15-year-old girl who believes that everyone should be his or her "own person," make his or her own decisions, and have the freedom to choose a course in life. Of the following, where would Tish most likely live?
In a culture characterized by narrow socialization, what traits are highly prized?
Obedience and conformity
Kakari is an Australian Aborigine child. Kakari likely lives by what set of cultural beliefs?
Kev is a young Australian Aborigine who feels the adolescent rituals in his culture are outdated and irrelevant. Kev is probably being influenced by
Robyn feels that until she gets married she will live with her parents. As well, Robyn knows when she becomes an adult she will have her aging parents live with her and her husband. From this information, we can conclude that Robyn is most likely
an Asian adolescent living in Hong Kong.
Which statement best represents the definition of "custom complex"?
Cultural practices and the beliefs that underlie them.
What does it mean when we say that showing interest in the opposite sex may be ontogenetic?
It is a natural part of development
According to the text, which statement about religion is true?
Industrialized societies tend to be less religious than traditional cultures.
According to the text, what industrialized country has more religious people than virtually any other?
When it comes to religion, these type of emerging adults take what they want and ignore the rest.
Kohlberg's theory of moral development is based on
how participants explained their conclusions to dilemma discussions
Giselle reasons at Kohlberg's Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation. What would Giselle be most likely to say about lying?
"Lying is wrong because Mommy spanks me when I lie."
Kohlberg's Stage 3 (in Level 2) is characterized by
care and loyalty to others.
Danika is trying to decide the right thing to do. Her friend Lisa wants Danika to accompany her to the hospital where she is scheduled to have an abortion. Danika really wants to support Lisa who is going through a harrowing time. Ultimately, Danika decides she cannot accompany Lisa because of her religious beliefs. Danika's reasoning focuses on the ethic of
In a nationwide survey of college freshman in the United States, how many reported they had participated in a political demonstration?
Sex is to biological categories as gender is to ________categories.
Which of the following best represents a gender difference versus a sex difference?
Girls tend to have a more negative body image than boys.
Shannon's friends sometimes tease her about her dislike of wearing fashionable clothes and her plans to be an aircraft mechanic. Shannon's attributes most likely violate her friends' views of
According to research, in traditional cultures, during adolescence, socialization becomes broader for boys and narrower for girls. Therefore,
boys generally have more freedom than girls.
Brittany is eight years old. Her daily activities include helping her mother make meals, running the household, and looking after her baby brother. Most likely, Brittany lives in a(n)
traditional preindustrial culture.
Which statement best reflects adolescents' family relationships in traditional cultures?
Boys have more contact with peers than do girls.
Cross-cultural analyses have shown that in traditional cultures a boy is considered a man when he is able to
provide, protect, and procreate.
Which of the following was most likely to be the adult role of a young middle class woman in 18th and 19th century America?
Wife and mother
Gerald is a young man who is preparing to become the head of his future household. Like most of his peers, Gerald believes it is more important to contribute to community and family than to pursue personal goals of wealth and success. The year is most likely
Research indicates that conformity to gender roles during early adolescence is mostly likely among adolescents whose
parents influenced them toward gender compliance.
Which of the following best reflects the socialization patterns of boys and girls in Western culture?
Girls are more self-conscious about their appearance and take more interest in forming intimate friendships.
Carmela encourages her daughter to express her feelings, while she advises her son to "forget about" his hurt feelings over an argument with his friend. Most likely, Carmela's behaviors result from
beliefs arising from her own gender socialization.
Daryl, a thirteen-year-old boy, takes jazz dancing lessons and wants to be a fashion designer. According to research, he is likely to experience
some peer ridicule and be less popular.
The research finding that 90 percent of infants observed at an American shopping mall were wearing gender-specific clothing provides support for
differential gender socialization.
Which of the following is NOT a typical article topic in magazines targeted to adolescent girls?
According to the cognitive developmental theory of gender, children understand gender identity (being male or female) when they are about ______ year(s) old.
Alex finds enjoyment in after-school activities that include playing soccer, showing off on the latest video game, gossiping with friends or playing with dolls. Alex isn't concerned about whether after-school activities are "boy" things or "girl" things. Alex is most likely a
According to research, which of the following traits are considered most desirable for an American male?
Self-reliant, competitive, and assertive
In terms of gender differences in adolescence and emerging adulthood, which of the following is the most accurate? For most characteristics, there is __________________________ between genders.
more similarity than difference
Social roles theory asserts that the social roles for males and females may
amplify or suppress certain skills.
Which of the following is associated with adolescent cognitive development?
Constantine is a young adult who spends a lot of time volunteering for his church. He gladly gives a portion of his paycheck to his aunt and grandmother each month. Constantine's wife, Vera, is very upset and thinks that he should be focusing on his own career and trying to get ahead. Which of the following is most likely true of this couple?
Constantine grew up in a collectivistic culture; Vera grew up in an individualistic culture.
Childhood is to concrete as adolescence is to
For an adolescent, feelings of failure may result from awareness of a difference between the
actual self and the ideal self.
Muukadu's step-mother was a "workaholic" and was hardly ever home. Muukadu plans to apply for law school, but swears she will not be like her step-mother. This scenario best reflects Muukadu's
Self- Concept refers to the way a person views and evaluates him or herself wherein Self-Esteem refers to the person's
overall sense of worth.
Which of the following may contribute to a decline in self-esteem experienced in adolescence?
When would a person likely experience the most intense fluctuations in barometric self-esteem?
Which of the following is NOT one of the domains of self-image proposed by Harter?
Which of Harter's eight aspects of self-image would you expect to be most important in adolescence?
Recent research has shown that an effective way of increasing school-related self-esteem is to
teach them knowledge and skills that can be the basis of real achievements.
According to the text, recent research indicates that ___________ may make a significant contribution to adolescents' emotionality.
Jakob goes out a lot. He hangs around with a lot of guys from his neighborhood and his school. They are always skateboarding together downtown and playing video games. However, Jakob feels like he has no one to talk to about his problems and the things that are important to him. Jakob is experiencing
According to Erikson, the central task of adolescence focuses on
identity versus identity confusion.
Juan is a high school senior. He's not sure what he wants to study in college, but he is considering either teaching or nursing. He has a part-time job as a clerk in a medical clinic and volunteers at his step-sister's preschool. We could say that Juan is experiencing
Dylan plans to get his commercial pilot's license and be a pilot at the company where both his father and grandfather work. He's never given it a second thought. Dylan's brother Aidan constantly warns him, "Take some time, man, don't rush into it; do what's right for you." Dylan always replies, "If being a pilot is good enough for Dad and Grandpa, it's good enough for me. Besides, they would be very disappointed if I backed out." Which of the following identity statuses best describes Dylan?
Blake is 28 years old and hasn't settled down. He has started college twice and quit, unsure of what career would suit his personality. He plays in a rock band on the weekends and secretly hopes he will be discovered by a record company, but doesn't really like performing all that much. Most likely, Blake is experiencing
According to recent research, the postmodern identity status model is
changeable across contexts.
Which of the following ethnic identity statuses is characterized by low identification with the majority culture?
It is Chantel's first day at a new high school. At lunch, a girl from her class asks her, "Where are you from? What's your background?" Chantel replies, "My parents are originally from Korea, but I really think of myself as just Canadian." Chantel's statement best illustrates
collected in numerical form, usually on questionnaires.
collected in nonnumerical form, usually in interview or observations
gonadotropins (GSH and LH) released and stimulate the development of gametes (egg cells in ovaries and sperm in testis)
most important estrogen
most important androgen
causes adrenal glands to increase androgen production (in both males and females)
one egg matures about every 28 days
sperm production begins at approximately 12 years old
primary sex characteristics
related to reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
not related to reproduction
Theory that both genetics and environment make essential contributions to human development but are difficult to unravel because our genes actually influence the kind of environment we experience.
formal operations stage: hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Piaget's term for the process by which the formal operational thinker systematically tests possible solutions to a problem and arrives at an answer that can be defended and explained. (the pendulum problem: Piaget's classic test of formal operations, in which persons are asked to figure out what determines the speed at which a pendulum sways from side to side.)
formal operations stage: abstract thinking
thinking in terms of symbols, ideas, and concepts
formal operations stage: Complex thinking - deductive reason
thinking that takes into account multiple connections and interpretations, such as in the use of metaphor, satire, and sarcasm.
the capacity to evaluate evidence and arguments
Thinking that involves not merely memorizing information but analyzing it, making judgments about what it means, relating it to other information, and considering ways in which it might be valid or invalid.
the ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of others
having difficulty distinguishing your own thinking about yourself from the thoughts of others
the belief audience leads to an idea that you are incredibly unique and no one else can understand what you are like
socialization outcomes: self-regulation
The capacity for exercising self-control to restrain one's impulses and comply with social norms.
socialization outcomes: role preparation
An outcome of socialization that includes preparation for occupational roles, gender roles, and roles in institutions such as marriage and parenthood.
o Broad socialization
o Narrow socialization
The process by which persons in an individualistic culture come to learn individualism, including values of individual uniqueness, independence, and self-expression.
The process by which persons in a collectivistic culture come to learn collectivism, including values of obedience and conformity.
sources of socialization
· Legal system
· Family - influence of family diminishes in adolescence
· Cultural belief system
moral development worldview approach
a set of cultural beliefs that explain what it means to be human, how human relations should be conducted, and how human problems should be addressed.
gender intensification hypothesis
· Psychological and behavioral differences become more pronounced at adolescence
o Intensified socialization and pressures to conform
· Especially for adolescents who are exposed to family socialization pressures to conform
communal manhood (17th and 18th centuries)
The focus of gender expectations for adolescent boys was on preparing to assume adult male role responsibilities in work and marriage.
self-made manhood (19th century)
1. males were increasingly expected to become independent from their families in adolescence and emerging adulthood as part of becoming a man.
Passionate manhood (20th century)
self-expression and self-enjoyment replaced self-control and self-denial as the paramount virtues young males should learn in the course of becoming a man.
fluctuating - responds to different thoughts, experiences, etc. most intense in early adolescence
adult responsibilities are postponed as young people "try on" possible selves
marcia's identity statuses
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