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AHS Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (63)
The monosaccharides and the disaccharides are designated as BLANK because they provide calories.
Which of the following are appropriate use of aspartame?
Diet soft drinks
Sugar free gum
Sugar free gelatin desserts
Name the major monosaccharide found in the body.
Type 1 diabetes
A form of diabetes characterized by total insulin deficiency due to destruction of insulin-producing cells of the pancreas
Type 2 diabetes
A form of diabetes characterized by insulin resistance and often associated with obesity
Occurs in some pregnant women and resolves after the baby is born
All sweeteners are compared to the sweetness found in
Sugar alcohols are advantageous in food products because they
Do not promote dental caries
Provide fewer calories than sugar
According to the Food and Nutrition Board, carbohydrates should provide BLANK% to BLANK% of total calories in the diet.
True or false: Aspartame is heat stable so it is appropriate for use in cooking.
Primary lactose maldigestion
Chronically decreased production of lactase with no apparent cause; may cause abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea after consumption of large quantities of lactose
Secondary lactose maldigestion
Temporarily decreased production of lactase due to a specific cause, such as an intestinal virus; may cause abdominal pain, gas, and diarrhea after consumption of large quantities of lactose
The main function of glucose is to supply _______ for the body.
Of the following, which is a major source of sucrose?
For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?
The Adequate Intake (AI) for fiber for an adult woman who consumes about 1800 kcal per day is
25 grams per day
Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) should avoid
The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's heat and light is called
Which of the following is true about carbohydrate digestion?
Carbohydrate digestion is assisted by cooking, which softens tough skins
The ______ was a landmark, multisite study designed to improve glucose control and prevent the onset of diabetes. Most impressive is that individuals that followed a healthy dietary and physical activity pattern had better glucose control than individuals treated by medication.
Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)
Examples of refined grain products include
White flour, de-germed cornmeal, white bread, and white rice
Which of the following is a true statement about the effects of sugar?
Prolonged exposure of the teeth to simple sugars from snacks and drinks promotes dental caries
Sucralose (Splenda®) is made by adding
Chlorines to sucrose
Glucose is absorbed via ______ absorption.
The Dietary Guidelines recommend limiting added sugar intake to less than ______ of total calories.
The disaccharides important in nutrition are sucrose, maltose, and
______ is a condition in which one lacks the enzyme lactase. Symptoms include gas and bloating after consuming dairy products.
Diets high in trans fatty acids tend to ______ the level of LDL in the blood.
Butter contains mostly ______ fatty acids.
A monounsaturated fatty acid contains
One double bond
For people who need to lower their blood cholesterol levels, the American Heart Association recommends limiting saturated fat intake to ______ of total calories.
Olive and canola oils contain a high percentage of _____ fatty acids.
One serving of pita chips provides ______% of the Daily Value for fat.
Gram for gram, which of the following contains the most cholesterol?
One of the richest plant sources of omega-3 fatty acids is
After dietary fats are digested, the small intestinal cells absorb a mixture of
Monoglycerides and fatty acids
Which lipoprotein is responsible for picking up cholesterol from dying cells and other sources so it can be transported back to the liver for excretion?
The three-carbon structure that forms the "backbone" of a triglyceride is called
Fatty fish, such as salmon, are rich sources of which omega-3 fatty acid?
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
Which of the following is true about the fate of fatty acids after their absorption?
Fatty acids of less than 12 carbons enter the blood and then the liver via the hepatic portal vein
Immediately after a meal, newly absorbed dietary fats appear in the blood as
The main problem with the fat replacer olestra is that it can reduce absorption of
What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?
Sequence of events in protein synthesis
It takes approximately ______ kilograms of grain to produce 1 kilogram of animal protein in cereal-fed animals.
Kwashiorkor and marasmus are two forms of
The nitrogen from amino acid breakdown is
Converted to urea
Because the ______ diet is recognized as being low in meat, rich in fresh fruit and vegetables, low in added sugar, and low in saturated fat, it has been recommended as a sustainable alternative to the MyPlate dietary pattern.
Proteins produced by white blood cells as part of the immune response
Which of the following plant proteins is a complete source of protein?
Treating a protein with acid, heat, or agitation will cause ______, meaning that the three-dimensional structure of the protein has been altered.
Donovan has been consuming large quantities of food and in violation of safe rules of athletic training is injecting testosterone. He has been seeing large temporary gains in muscle mass. He is in a state of
Positive protein balance
Most plant proteins are ______ proteins, which means that they are low in one or more of the essential amino acids.
Which of the following describes the fate of excess protein?
It is stored as fat
The disease phenylketonuria (PKU) illustrates how a nonessential amino acid can become conditionally essential as a result of a genetic disease. A person with PKU has a limited ability to metabolize the essential amino acid
A child with marasmus
is very susceptible to infections
Denaturation refers to
Alteration of the three-dimensional structure of a protein
Which type of anemia results from an error in the DNA code?
Sickle cell anemia
_ is a cholesterol-rich substance deposited in blood vessels
Reduces the shelf life of a product creating a problem for the food industry and restaurant. To prevent the problem, manufacturers add partially hydrogenated plant oils to products
What are the components of a phospholipid molecule?
Saturated fatty acid
Contains no carbon-carbon double bonds
Monounsaturated fatty acid
One carbon-carbon double bond
Polyunsaturated fatty acid
Two or more carbon-carbon double bonds
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