Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Physiology - Test 2
Terms in this set (112)
The visual Cortex is found
in the occipital lobe.
Each specialized receptor cell has a "switch" that must be turned on in order for the cell to turn on.
All receptor potentials are strong enough to elicit an action potential in the afferent nerve cell.
The ability of a sensory receptor to become less sensitive to a particular stimulus in the continued presence of that stimulus is called
Proper depth perception requires
two different images from each eye.
Why is it imperative that the cornea be transparent
It is imperative for the cornea to be transparent so that it can refract or bend light to be focused on the retina. It is transparent because of the presence of free nerve endings.
What is the role of the pupil in vision.
it alters the amount of light that enters the eyes.
The eyeball is composed of three tissue layers. List them from outermost to innermost.
Cornea and sclera, choroid, retinal layer
What is causing the intraocular pressure to be increased?
Decreased reabsorption of aqueous humor.
The middle of the ear bones
amplify the vibration energy from the tympanic membrane onto the smaller oval window.
The pupil can dilate or constrict to allow more or less light to hit the retina.
The adjustment of the lens so that you can see objects both near and far is called.
When the eyeball is too shallow which of the following will happen?
The image is focused behind the retina.
Which layer of the retina contains the specialized cells that can capture photons?
In the retina, there is a relay of information between cell layers. Put the layers in order beginning with the cells that first capture a photon and ending with the cells that send action potentials to the brain.
Photoreceptor cell, bipolar cell, ganglion cell.
Rod cells are specialized for scotopic vision.
Neurons whose axons travel in the hypothalamohypophyseal tract include those that secrete.
The portion of a photoreceptor cell that can capture a photon is the ________.
What comprises the optic nerve?
Axons of ganglion cells.
The photopigment in rods and cones is ________.
opsin + 11-cis-retinal
Hormone target cells must express what?
receptors for the hormone.
Cones are responsible for color vision, while rods can only function in black, white and shades of gray.
The term that describes the stimuli that a receptor is most sensitive to is known as the
A neurotransmitter can act as a hormone,
when secreted into the blood.
can be found within the CNS.
Hormones are released in a
Overall mechanism of amplification:
1 rhodopsin activated (R*) → hundreds of CNG channels close → cell hyperpolarization → decreased glutamate release
What is the first step necessary for initiating the visual transduction cascade in rods?
Capture of a photon by rhodopsin and isomerization of retinal.
What happens to the levels of cGMP in the light?
The levels of cGMP decrease.
Sound Pathway to the brain
Vibration of the tympanic membrane-> Movement of the hammer, anvil, and stirrups.->Vibration of the oval Window-> Vibration of the round Window.
The physiological response of a photoreceptor cell when light is sensed is ________.
hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor cell
The olfactory sensory neurons and the mitral cell synapse in bundles are called
Visual transduction begins with the capture of a photon and ends with the relay of the signal to the next cell(s) in line.
The autonomic Nervous system contains neurons that control things
at an unconscious level, excluding skeletal muscle.
Match the stimulus with the appropriate photoreceptor response.
Light, hyperpolarization, decreased glutamate release.
Physical Properties of Neurons and the respective neurotransmitters.
Preganglionic Sympathetic fiber... long axon and ACh -> Postganglionic Sympathetic Fiber... Short axon and ACh-> Preganglionic Parasympathetic Fiber...Short axon and ACH-> Postganglionic Parasympathetic fiber...Long axon and Epi/NE
Sort the events involved in visual transduction in order of occurrence. Begin with capture of a photon.Capture of a photon by the photopigment
-11-cis-retinal isomerization---Activation of G protein (transducin)---Activation of phosphodiesterase---Decreased levels of cGMP---Closure of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels----Photoreceptor hyperpolarization---Decreased release of glutamate onto bipolar cells.
The neuronal cell body for a parasympathetic neuron is located
in the brainstem and sacral region of the spinal cord.
One way in which the visual transduction cascade can get "turned off" is the ________.
-arrestin binding to rhodopsin.
The neuronal cell body for a sympathetic neuron is located in
the T 1 through L 2 divisions of the spinal cord.
These cells in the retina can fire action potentials along their axons and transmit the signal to the brain via the optic nerve.
A nicotinic cholinergic receptor is found in
either the sympathetic chain ganglia and or the neuromuscular junction.
Cranial nerve II is also called the________.
Some drugs sourced from natural products such as muscarine from mushrooms act as
agonists at the synapse between postganglionic parasympathetic fibers & target tissues.
The ganglion axons from the right and left eye never crossover, therefore each hemisphere of the visual cortex receives input only from the eye on the same side.
is made up of postganglionic sympathetic cells.
The autonomic nervous system is under
involuntary control while the somatic nervous system is under voluntary control.
The inner ear only plays a role in auditions.
ACh receptor structures
vary at different synapses within the body.
The tympanic membrane of the ear is more commonly called the ________.
Actin Filaments are contained in
the I-band of the sarcomere.
Myosin filaments are thick filaments located in
These three small bones sit within the middle ear.
Malleus, incus, stapes
The amplitude of a sound wave is the total height of a wave, from the peak to the valley.
The pitch of a sound is directly related to the ________ of sound waves
is the process by which an action potential moves along the sarcolemma.
Troponin binds to
Ca^2+, moving tropomyosin out of the way for actin and myosin to form a cross bridge.
If troponin were removed from the sarcomere
the cross bridge would not be able to form.
Within the inner ear, the location of the hair cells responsible for auditory transduction is the ________.
organ of Corti.
Skeletal muscle is depolarized when
Na enters the cell and K exits the cell.
When the ion channels in the stereocilia membrane are pulled open, Na+ flows into the cell and causes the cell to depolarize.
Motor Neuron stimulation
--> release of Acetylcholine → Acetylcholine binds to receptors on a muscle cell membrane→ depolarization of transverse tubules.
The vestibular system relies on hair cells that are similar in structure and function to those found in the auditory system.
If there were no transverse tubules
contraction would only occur in the outer filaments.
When the head moves, which way does the stereocilia move?
In the opposite direction head rotation.
The neurotransmitter released at the synapse between the vestibular hair cells and the afferent neuron is ________.
The afferent nerve fibers in the inner ear converge to form which nerve?
The vestibulocochlear nerve.
Match the following endocrine glands with the hormones they secrete.
Adrenal--Epinephrine, Thyroid--Thyroxine, Pineal--Melatonin, Kidney--calcitriol.
Skeletal muscles form bundles called
The attachment of ATP to the myosin molecule allows for the dissociation of the myosin cross bridge.
Which of the following statements is/are true about endocrine cells?
They secrete hormones into They secrete hormones into blood-They can be a neuron.-cThey are found as part of organs like the heart--They are found within endocrine organs.
A muscular motor unit is
the single motor neuron plus all the muscle fibers it innervates.
Smooth muscle activation sequence
Depolarization of the cell membrane → calcium release from internal stores→ calcium binding to calmodulin→ activation of MLCK→ Phosphorylation of myosin → cross Bridge Formation.
When muscle fibers contract
Z disks move closer together.
Peptide and steroids travel through the blood
to target tissues.
actively degrades acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction.
is both a neurotransmitter and hormone.
Excitation/Contraction coupling in skeletal muscle
→ Motor neuron action potential propagation→ ACh release→ Transverse Tubule depolarization→ Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release. → Troponin binds calcium→ Cross bridge is formed.
Hormone target cells ________________.
Select all that apply → are found throughout the body- express a receptor for that hormone-converts the information carried in the hormone structure into a cellular signal→ play roles in the physiological processes.
Hormones release is ________regulated whereas neurotransmitter release is ________regulated.?
contain taste receptors cells.
What causes muscle Soreness?
Lactic acid build up
The vestibular and cochlear nerves converge at
cranial nerve VIII
Hormones are released in response to
other hormones- changes in physiological systems, blood levels of key components, and nervous system regulation.
The pancreas is both an
endocrine and exocrine gland serving as part of the endocrine system and the digestive system.
Lipid soluble hormones are transported ________.
Complexed carrier proteins.
The basilar membrane causes
the hair cells within the organ of corti to vibrate.
The t1/2 of a lipid soluble hormone would be increased by ________.
Smooth muscle cells are
spindle shaped and have a single centrally located nucleus.
Hair cells located in the utricle and saccule determine
linear acceleration of the head.
A neuromuscular junction is where
axons of motor nerves meet the muscle and where a chemical synapse is formed between a motor neuron and a muscular fiber.
Which of the following statements does signal transduction refer to? Select all that apply.
→ The process by which neurotransmitter binding to the postsynaptic membrane results in an EPSP→ How the information inherent in hormone structure leads to a cellular change → The process by which cells communicate with other cells → The process by which sensory information is converted by sensory cells into action potentials.
Without Iodine in one's diet they would suffer from
The process by which sensory information is converted by sensory cells into action potentials.
production of cAMP
Skeletal muscle is not directly controlled by the
The ANS is
a system of motor neurons that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glands, it is involuntary, and includes general visceral motor functions.
Match each hormone with its cell transduction pathway.
Insulin → 1-TMS, Steroids, Nuclear or cytosolic receptor, Epinephrine, GPCR, Growth Hormone, RTKase
The Vagus nerve contains
preganglionic parasympathetic fibers.
Autonomic ganglions are located in
the brain, the thoracic region, and close to visceral organs.
The mechanism of action for insulin like growth factor (IGFI) involves ________.
phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue
The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for
fight or flight.
Hormones that bind to 7 TMS (transmembrane spanning) receptors signal the cell interior by affecting which of the following? Select all that apply.
G protein, cAMP, Adenylate cyclase, Protein kinase A.
The spinal cord can exit the
spinal cord at the thoracic vertebrae.
Nicotinic receptors are found in
postganglionic neurons, adrenal medulla hormone producing cells, and skeletal muscle motor plates
Sympathetic stimulation is
supplemented by the secretions of the adrenal medulla
Beta 1 plays a motor role in
Skeletal muscle fibers contain
glycogen, creatine phosphate, and ATP as stores forms of energy
At high concentrations ADH is a
Loss of GHRH would have which of the following effects
Decreased in blood glucose (Hypoglycemia)
ACh is released when a AP reaches the
Connects muscle to bone
Other sets by this creator
Anatomy - Block 3
Optics - Block 3
MCB - Final