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who were the Huguenots? How did they represent a threat to the ruling monarchy of Europe?
They were French Calvinists, the nobles were becoming Calvinists, 40 to 50 percent of French nobles were calvinists.
Who was Catherine de Medici and what was her personal position regarding religious differences in France
The mother of 2 weak kings, used religious compromise to diffuse political tensions, she lead as regnant, powerful, not into killing the Huguenots in general
What three factors contributing to France's civil wars were given to us in the text
1, conversion of many nobles to calvinists, 2, towns and provinces which had long resisted the monarchies growing centralization, revolted, 3, people from all levels of society embraced Huegonot Calvinism, because it provided for greater economic freedom
describe the events of saint bartholomew's day massacre, and explain how these even did not help France's present ruling Valois dynasty.
1 Catholics and Huegonots meet in Paris on the feast of Bartholomew's day to celebrate the marrige of a protestant to a catholic (king) 2 the marrige was the meeting of many wealthy and prominant huegonots in a catholic paris, 3 the massacure began 2 days after the attempted murder of Ad. Gaspard de Coligny, 4 the king ordered the massacure, it lasted several weeks, and went out a paris.
what were the stipulations of the edict of nantes, how did this edict similar to the peaof augsburg
acknowledged catholisim as the main french religion, allowed the Hug, the right to worship in certain spots, allowed them the protect themselves, allowed all political privileges, like it, the peace of augsburg did the same things
what were king philip these second of spains holdings
spaink portugal, sardinia, parts of italy and france, a bit of north africa, luxembourg, the netherlands
in what ways did philip work to make spain a dominant powering in europe
he wanted absolute rule in all of his domains
how and why did the netherlands revolt against philip's rule
why, because philip tried to strengthen his control not regarding traditional things, also, peoples taxes were going to the spanish and not their own country, how: calvinists began to destroy statues and stained glass windows in catholic churches, went into open wars against him in 1572
what were queen elizabeths religious leanings, what was her manner of rule
she was the leader of the protestant nations, her manner was moderate and she compromised
a member of a group of protestants who advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the church of england, began in england and spread to america where it greatly influenced social, political and religious institutes.
What did england's defeat of the spanish armada in 1588 signify for both nations
spain could never conquer england
how did protestantism create and justify an increased need for education
protestantism needed a body of believers, men and women, who could read the bible, luther advocated that all children have an education provided by the state, he urged cities to set up schools paid for by the public, they also created a secondary school
the revival of catholosim, trying to stop the spread of protestanism, 5 areas it worked on, 1 doctrine, 2 re-configuration of church leadership, 3 religious orders, 4 spiritual movements, 5 politics
the oratory of divine love
first organized in 1497, new religious order and informal group who worked to foster the regorf
give a brief history of the jesuits and relate their religious activity in the 16th century
founded by Ignatius of Loyola whose battle injuries stopped his military carrier, her wrote a spiritual program, the spiritual exercises, loyola founded a group, the society of jesus, which was recognized by the church, their 3 activities, 1 established highly disciplined schools, they took over the premier academic posts in catholic universities, 2 propagation of the catholic faith among non catholics, 3rd, fight protestants
what corrections were made to the papacy in response to the issues the protestant reformation
advocates to reform made cardinals, a reform commission to study the church, there was a peaceful council to settle the religious division, a list of restricted books was made
who were the responsible parties for seeing Lutheranism established in the Scandinavian states, what did this signify regarding the states role in all things ecclesiastical
Gustavus Vasa of sweeden, Fredrick the first of denmark, and christian the third, installed it as the state religion, it signified the scandinavian monarchs had been the dominant in establishing state run churches
in what ways were zwingli's reforms in switzerland similar to those of luthers in germany, what aspect of christian teaching and practive brought zwingli and luther to disagreement
They both preached in such as way that people listened, agreed mass be replaced by sermon, there was also debate after like luther, he also like the state like luthur liked the princes, popes authority abolished, they disagreed about Jesus' body and blood literally or figuratively being in the lord's supper in the blood and wine
to what did the anabaptists react
they reacted to not wanting the state envolved in church affairs, they were attracted to the peasants, weavers, miners, and artisans, they felt the christian church was voluntary group of believers undergone spiritual rebirth and had been baptized into the church
extreme anabaptists lead by john of leiden , they believed that the end of the world was coming with Munster as the new jerusalem to save the world
john of leiden
a man who proclaimed himself leader of the new jerusalem, he wanted to purify the world
King Henry the eighth
he wanted to divorce his wife catherine of aragon and wanted england to be their own rome so he could divorce her, married 6 times
catherines lady in waiting and lover of henry, wanted to be legitimized but was to feisty, henry tired of her and beheaded her.
highest ranking official in england, lord chansler, asked the pope for the divorce, henry fired him when he didnt succeed.
anne of cleves
4th wife of henry, he had never seen her before the marriage, after marriage divorced her
what is the common book of prayer and how did it come into existence
protestant liturgical guide for england, came into existence through act of parliament
how did catherine of aragon's daughter mary gain the name bloody mary
she burnt 300 protestants as heretics
how did mary's reign as a catholic monarch ultimately work to solidify protestant control of england
people wanted to be protestant because it was identifyied with english resistance to spains interference
who was john calvin, what were the teachings and influences of calvinism in teh 2nd half of the 16th century
he was the organizer of the protestant movement. He was french, his teachings were justification by faith alone,emphasized God's sovereignty, he stressed that there was no certainty in salvation
list biographical information about martin luther up to the time of his becoming a theology professeur at University of Wittenberg
Born in germany, started out studying to become a lawyer because his dad wanted him to, got a master in liberal arts, decided to study theology and got his doctorate, then taught at the university of wittenburg, baptized as a catholic
what uncertainty plagued martin luther through his early thirties
he was troubled that catholics emphasized faith and good works for salvation, he knew nothing a small human could do could be good enough for God, he need assurance of his salvation
what did the study of the book of Romans reveal to Martin Luther that answered his pro about the issue of salvation
he found out that salvation is achieved through faith in God's promises and believing Jesus died on the crop, scripture believed about pope,
what were the twin pillars of the Protestant reformation
justification by faith and the bible as the sole authority in religious affaires,
what roles did pope leo X and Johann Tetzel play in the selling of indulgences at the same time that Martin luthur was having his revelation about the justification faith
pope leo issued a special jubilee indulgence to finance a basilica in rome johann tetzel made a slogan to sell indulgences
what was the topic and theme of luther's ninety five theses
the topic was salvation, it also talked about how the pope doesnt remit sins and indulgences dont get you out of purgatory, addressed wrong theology
who was johann eck and how dids debate with luther in Leipzig july 1519 actually push luther into a more comprehensive rejection of the authority rome in issues of faith
he was a catholic theologian, luthur was able to see the consequences of his thoery, he was also convinced he was doing what God wanted him to do
how did luther respond to accusation of heresy made at the diet of ws, what was the decision made about him at this occasion
he said he didnt accept the clergys authority as true saying that they contradicted one another, they outlawed him and burnt his works, his friends were forced to abduct him to keep him safe
by what method were the teachings of er spread throughout germany and did the state authorities respond
he started to organize a different church using his ideas and preaching strait from the bible, after the preaching there was debates and the new preachers won the debates, a reform of the church was made, also, pamphlets spread his idea
who was philip melanchthon and what did he represent to Lutheranism
he was a student of luther, they became lifelong friends, he gave his life to defending the theology of the reformation, he urged luther to translate the bible to german
what caused the peasants war and what was luther's response to this up rising
peasant dissatisfaction, they hadnt gotten better lives even though the economy was better, lords still abused them and made new pointless taxes, he acted against the peasants, and asked German princes for help
what two sacraments of the catholic church did luther keep, based on his interpretation of the scriptural authority and how did he validate each one
baptism and the lord's supper, he said that Jesus' body was present in the bread and blood in the wine, baptism which symbolized rebirth through grace
how did lutheranism fair through the wars and political intrigue of the first half of the 1500s
religion divided empires, some kings tried to eliminate lutheranism, eventually Christian division was recognized, people also given the right to choose their religion
list other changes luther institute the area of church affairs and practices
bible has authority alone, got rid of hierarchy of priests, true church is invisible in that christ lives in the body of the people, instituted things that took the place of mass, denounced clerical celebacy
upon what sources, other than the classics, did northern or christian humanists rely to correct the complicated theological arguments of the middle ages
sources of early christianity, the scriptures, writings of augustine, ambrose and jerone
what did christian humanist believe education was purposed accomplish
they felt they could instill a true inner piety or an inward religious feeling that would bring about a reform of the church and society
what role did desiderius erasmus play in christian humanism what books did he write and what their themes, what were his vie of the church as it was
formed the reform program, he wrote the handbook of the christian knight, this stated that christianity should be a guided direction for life not a system of dogmatic beliefs, emphasized inner piety, made new edition of the bible, his ideas in reform were understanding the philosophy of Jesus, providing education, and understanding attacks from the church, also wrote praise of folly, humorous but effective criticism of corrupt practicum in his society
what was the theme of sir thomas more's utopia, how did more's convictions regarding the universal catholic chhur over and above his work as a servant of the king position him in a lace of ultimate danger
the theme was an idealistic life on a fake island, he wanted society based on cooperation and reason, he didnt want to work for Henry V11 because of his divorce and that disagreement ultimately coast him his life
how did Frederick the wise of Saxony seek to secure his eternal salvation
he got over 5000 relics to which were attached indulgences that reduced 1443 years of purgatory
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