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who were the Huguenots? How did they represent a threat to the ruling monarchy of Europe?

They were French Calvinists, the nobles were becoming Calvinists, 40 to 50 percent of French nobles were calvinists.

Who was Catherine de Medici and what was her personal position regarding religious differences in France

The mother of 2 weak kings, used religious compromise to diffuse political tensions, she lead as regnant, powerful, not into killing the Huguenots in general

What three factors contributing to France's civil wars were given to us in the text

1, conversion of many nobles to calvinists, 2, towns and provinces which had long resisted the monarchies growing centralization, revolted, 3, people from all levels of society embraced Huegonot Calvinism, because it provided for greater economic freedom

describe the events of saint bartholomew's day massacre, and explain how these even did not help France's present ruling Valois dynasty.

1 Catholics and Huegonots meet in Paris on the feast of Bartholomew's day to celebrate the marrige of a protestant to a catholic (king) 2 the marrige was the meeting of many wealthy and prominant huegonots in a catholic paris, 3 the massacure began 2 days after the attempted murder of Ad. Gaspard de Coligny, 4 the king ordered the massacure, it lasted several weeks, and went out a paris.

what were the stipulations of the edict of nantes, how did this edict similar to the peaof augsburg

acknowledged catholisim as the main french religion, allowed the Hug, the right to worship in certain spots, allowed them the protect themselves, allowed all political privileges, like it, the peace of augsburg did the same things

what were king philip these second of spains holdings

spaink portugal, sardinia, parts of italy and france, a bit of north africa, luxembourg, the netherlands

what were king philip the second of spains nature

he was an advocate of militant catholosism

in what ways did philip work to make spain a dominant powering in europe

he wanted absolute rule in all of his domains

how and why did the netherlands revolt against philip's rule

why, because philip tried to strengthen his control not regarding traditional things, also, peoples taxes were going to the spanish and not their own country, how: calvinists began to destroy statues and stained glass windows in catholic churches, went into open wars against him in 1572

what were queen elizabeths religious leanings, what was her manner of rule

she was the leader of the protestant nations, her manner was moderate and she compromised

define puritan

a member of a group of protestants who advocated strict religious discipline along with simplification of the ceremonies and creeds of the church of england, began in england and spread to america where it greatly influenced social, political and religious institutes.

What did england's defeat of the spanish armada in 1588 signify for both nations

spain could never conquer england

how did protestantism create and justify an increased need for education

protestantism needed a body of believers, men and women, who could read the bible, luther advocated that all children have an education provided by the state, he urged cities to set up schools paid for by the public, they also created a secondary school

counter reformation

the revival of catholosim, trying to stop the spread of protestanism, 5 areas it worked on, 1 doctrine, 2 re-configuration of church leadership, 3 religious orders, 4 spiritual movements, 5 politics

the oratory of divine love

first organized in 1497, new religious order and informal group who worked to foster the regorf

give a brief history of the jesuits and relate their religious activity in the 16th century

founded by Ignatius of Loyola whose battle injuries stopped his military carrier, her wrote a spiritual program, the spiritual exercises, loyola founded a group, the society of jesus, which was recognized by the church, their 3 activities, 1 established highly disciplined schools, they took over the premier academic posts in catholic universities, 2 propagation of the catholic faith among non catholics, 3rd, fight protestants

what corrections were made to the papacy in response to the issues the protestant reformation

advocates to reform made cardinals, a reform commission to study the church, there was a peaceful council to settle the religious division, a list of restricted books was made

who were the responsible parties for seeing Lutheranism established in the Scandinavian states, what did this signify regarding the states role in all things ecclesiastical

Gustavus Vasa of sweeden, Fredrick the first of denmark, and christian the third, installed it as the state religion, it signified the scandinavian monarchs had been the dominant in establishing state run churches

in what ways were zwingli's reforms in switzerland similar to those of luthers in germany, what aspect of christian teaching and practive brought zwingli and luther to disagreement

They both preached in such as way that people listened, agreed mass be replaced by sermon, there was also debate after like luther, he also like the state like luthur liked the princes, popes authority abolished, they disagreed about Jesus' body and blood literally or figuratively being in the lord's supper in the blood and wine

to what did the anabaptists react

they reacted to not wanting the state envolved in church affairs, they were attracted to the peasants, weavers, miners, and artisans, they felt the christian church was voluntary group of believers undergone spiritual rebirth and had been baptized into the church


extreme anabaptists lead by john of leiden , they believed that the end of the world was coming with Munster as the new jerusalem to save the world

john of leiden

a man who proclaimed himself leader of the new jerusalem, he wanted to purify the world

menno simons

rejuvanted dutch anabaptistm, mennonited derived from his name

King Henry the eighth

he wanted to divorce his wife catherine of aragon and wanted england to be their own rome so he could divorce her, married 6 times

catherine of aragon

spanish, queen of england, didnt bear henry a son but a daughter named mary

anne boleyn

catherines lady in waiting and lover of henry, wanted to be legitimized but was to feisty, henry tired of her and beheaded her.

cardinal wolsey

highest ranking official in england, lord chansler, asked the pope for the divorce, henry fired him when he didnt succeed.

thomas cromwell

kings principal secretary after wolsley, did what he wanted him to do

jane seymour

Henry's thrid wife, produced a son, edward the 6th and died in child birth

anne of cleves

4th wife of henry, he had never seen her before the marriage, after marriage divorced her

catherine howard

attractive, immoral, beheaded

what is the common book of prayer and how did it come into existence

protestant liturgical guide for england, came into existence through act of parliament

how did catherine of aragon's daughter mary gain the name bloody mary

she burnt 300 protestants as heretics

how did mary's reign as a catholic monarch ultimately work to solidify protestant control of england

people wanted to be protestant because it was identifyied with english resistance to spains interference

who was john calvin, what were the teachings and influences of calvinism in teh 2nd half of the 16th century

he was the organizer of the protestant movement. He was french, his teachings were justification by faith alone,emphasized God's sovereignty, he stressed that there was no certainty in salvation

list biographical information about martin luther up to the time of his becoming a theology professeur at University of Wittenberg

Born in germany, started out studying to become a lawyer because his dad wanted him to, got a master in liberal arts, decided to study theology and got his doctorate, then taught at the university of wittenburg, baptized as a catholic

what uncertainty plagued martin luther through his early thirties

he was troubled that catholics emphasized faith and good works for salvation, he knew nothing a small human could do could be good enough for God, he need assurance of his salvation

what did the study of the book of Romans reveal to Martin Luther that answered his pro about the issue of salvation

he found out that salvation is achieved through faith in God's promises and believing Jesus died on the crop, scripture believed about pope,

what were the twin pillars of the Protestant reformation

justification by faith and the bible as the sole authority in religious affaires,

what roles did pope leo X and Johann Tetzel play in the selling of indulgences at the same time that Martin luthur was having his revelation about the justification faith

pope leo issued a special jubilee indulgence to finance a basilica in rome johann tetzel made a slogan to sell indulgences

what was the topic and theme of luther's ninety five theses

the topic was salvation, it also talked about how the pope doesnt remit sins and indulgences dont get you out of purgatory, addressed wrong theology

who was johann eck and how dids debate with luther in Leipzig july 1519 actually push luther into a more comprehensive rejection of the authority rome in issues of faith

he was a catholic theologian, luthur was able to see the consequences of his thoery, he was also convinced he was doing what God wanted him to do

how did luther respond to accusation of heresy made at the diet of ws, what was the decision made about him at this occasion

he said he didnt accept the clergys authority as true saying that they contradicted one another, they outlawed him and burnt his works, his friends were forced to abduct him to keep him safe

by what method were the teachings of er spread throughout germany and did the state authorities respond

he started to organize a different church using his ideas and preaching strait from the bible, after the preaching there was debates and the new preachers won the debates, a reform of the church was made, also, pamphlets spread his idea

who was philip melanchthon and what did he represent to Lutheranism

he was a student of luther, they became lifelong friends, he gave his life to defending the theology of the reformation, he urged luther to translate the bible to german

what caused the peasants war and what was luther's response to this up rising

peasant dissatisfaction, they hadnt gotten better lives even though the economy was better, lords still abused them and made new pointless taxes, he acted against the peasants, and asked German princes for help

what two sacraments of the catholic church did luther keep, based on his interpretation of the scriptural authority and how did he validate each one

baptism and the lord's supper, he said that Jesus' body was present in the bread and blood in the wine, baptism which symbolized rebirth through grace

how did lutheranism fair through the wars and political intrigue of the first half of the 1500s

religion divided empires, some kings tried to eliminate lutheranism, eventually Christian division was recognized, people also given the right to choose their religion

list other changes luther institute the area of church affairs and practices

bible has authority alone, got rid of hierarchy of priests, true church is invisible in that christ lives in the body of the people, instituted things that took the place of mass, denounced clerical celebacy

upon what sources, other than the classics, did northern or christian humanists rely to correct the complicated theological arguments of the middle ages

sources of early christianity, the scriptures, writings of augustine, ambrose and jerone

what did christian humanist believe education was purposed accomplish

they felt they could instill a true inner piety or an inward religious feeling that would bring about a reform of the church and society

what role did desiderius erasmus play in christian humanism what books did he write and what their themes, what were his vie of the church as it was

formed the reform program, he wrote the handbook of the christian knight, this stated that christianity should be a guided direction for life not a system of dogmatic beliefs, emphasized inner piety, made new edition of the bible, his ideas in reform were understanding the philosophy of Jesus, providing education, and understanding attacks from the church, also wrote praise of folly, humorous but effective criticism of corrupt practicum in his society

what was the theme of sir thomas more's utopia, how did more's convictions regarding the universal catholic chhur over and above his work as a servant of the king position him in a lace of ultimate danger

the theme was an idealistic life on a fake island, he wanted society based on cooperation and reason, he didnt want to work for Henry V11 because of his divorce and that disagreement ultimately coast him his life

how did Frederick the wise of Saxony seek to secure his eternal salvation

he got over 5000 relics to which were attached indulgences that reduced 1443 years of purgatory

how did thomas a kempis the imitation of christ suggest salvation as secured

he said we are saved by what we have done and how we have lived not on how well we spoke or what we read,

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