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99 terms

Chapter 11: Properties And Disorders Of The Hair And Scalp

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The scientific study of hair, its disorders, & care is called:
Trichology
The hair is a threadlike outgrowth of the skin present on the:
Scalp
The chief purpose of hair is to:
Protect & Adorn
Hair is chiefly composed of a horny substance called:
Keratin
Hard keratin is a substance composed of:
Protein
That portion of the hair found beneath the skin surface is called the:
Hair Root
The portion of the hair that extends beyond the skin surface is known as the:
Hair Shaft
The portion of the hair that is not enclosed within the follicle is the:
Hair Shaft
The main structures of the hair root are the:
Follicle, The Bulb, Dermal Papilla, Sebaceous Glands, & Arrector Pili Muscle
A tub like depression in the skin or scalp that encases the hair root is the:
Hair Follicle
The natural flow of the hair as it emerges from the scalp & slants in a particular direction is known as the:
Hair Stream
A club-shaped structure that forms the lower part of the hair root is the:
Hair Bulb
The structure that fits over & covers the dermal papilla is the:
Hair Bulb
A small, cone-shaped elevation at the base of the hair follicle is called the:
Dermal Papilla
Nourishment reaches the hair bulb through the:
Dermal Papilla
Saclike structures with ducts that are attached to each hair follicle are called:
Sebaceous Glands
Glands that secrete sebum to the hair & scalp are called:
Sebaceous Glands
Some factors that influence sebum production are:
Diet & Blood Circulation, Stimulated Endocrine Glands, & Emotional Disturbances & Drugs
An involuntary muscle fiber attached to the underside & base of the hair follicle is the:
Arrector Pili Muscle
The three main layers of the hair shaft are the:
Cuticle, Cortex, & Medulla
The outermost layer of the hair shaft is the:
Cuticle
To penetrate the cuticle layer in order to reach the cortex, a solution must be:
More Alkaline Than The Hair
Changes that take place in the hair during chemical services occur within the:
Cortex
About 90 percent of the total weight of the hair can be traced to the:
Cortex
That portion of the hair that provides strength, elasticity, & natural color is the:
Cortex
The innermost layer of the hair shaft is the:
Medulla
Hair cells mature in the follicle through a process known as:
Keratinization
Hair is made of approximately:
91% Protein
The elements found in human hair are:
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, & Sulfur (COHNS Elements)
Proteins are made of long chains of chemical units known as:
Amino Acids
Peptide bonds join amino acids:
End to End
Peptide bonds are also known as:
End Bonds
End bonds are:
Chemical Bonds
The strongest chemical bonds in the hair are the:
Peptide Bonds
Chains of joined amino acids are known as:
End Chains
Intertwined polypeptide chains create a:
Helix Shape
Disulfide, Hydrogen, & Salt bonds are types of:
Cross Bonds
Approximately one-third of the hair's strength is attributed to the:
Salt, Disulfide, & Hydrogen Bonds (Cross Bonds)
Once end bonds are broken, they can:
Never Be Reformed
Disulfide bonds create:
Chemical Cross Bonds & Cystine
The bonds that provide the hair with the greatest resistance to chemicals are the:
Disulfide Bonds
Disulfide bonds may be restructured with:
Certain Chemical Solutions
Hydrogen bonds help to:
Keep the Parallel Chains of Polypeptides together & Add Body To The Hair
Hydrogen bonds are:
Physical Bonds
Water, dilute alkali, neutral, & acid solutions will:
Break H-Bonds
Drying & dilute acids will:
Reform Hydrogen Bonds
The type of melanin that provides brown & black color to hair is:
Eumelanin
The type of melanin that provides a range of hair color from red to light blonde tones is:
Pheomelanin
The amount of movement in the hair strand is described as the:
Wave Pattern
Hair grows an average of:
1/2 Inch Per Month
The three main types of hair growth are:
Vellus, Primary Terminal, & Secondary Terminal Hair
It is normal to lose an average of:
75-100 Hairs Per Day
Hair that flows in the same direction is known as a:
Hair Stream
The hair growth pattern that forms in a circular or swirl pattern is called a:
Whorl
Hair that protrudes straight out from the scalp may be evidence of a:
Cowlick
New hair is produced during the:
Anagen Phase
The transition period between the growth & resting phases of a hair strand is the:
Catagen Phase
The final phase of the hair cycle that lasts until the fully grown hair is shed is called the:
Telogen Phase
The anagen phase generally lasts from:
3-5 Years
On average, the entire growth process of hair repeats itself once every:
4-5 Years
To determine the hair's texture, density, porosity, & elastictiy, the barber performs a:
Hair Analysis
The texture of hair that has the largest diameter is:
Coarse Hair
The term used to indicate the number of individual hair strands per square inch of scalp area is:
Density
The ability of the hair to absorb moisture determines its:
Level of Porosity
The ability of the hair to stretch & return to its original length without breaking is its:
Level of Elasticity
Alopecia is the technical term for any abnormal type of:
Hair Loss
Hair loss that occurs as a result of genetics, age, & hormonal changes is called:
Androgenic Alopecia
Hair loss characterized by the sudden falling out of hair in round patches is called:
Alopecia Areata
Two hair loss treatments known to stimulate hair growth are:
Minoxidil & Finasteride
Common scalp disorders include:
Dandruff, Vegetable & Animal Parasitic Infections, & Staphylococcal Infections
The technical term for dandruff is:
Pityriasis
Small, white scales appearing on the scalp & hair is a sign of:
Pityriasis
Classic dandruff characterized by scalp irritation, flakes, & an itchy scalp is known as:
Pityriasis Capitis Simplex
Dandruff characterized by accumulated greasy or waxy scales mixed with sebum is:
Pityriasis Steatoides
Ringworm is an example of a:
Vegetable Parasitic Infection
Ringworm of the scalp is the common name for:
Tinea Capitis
Ringworm of the bearded area, or "barber's itch," is technically known as:
Tinea Sycosis
Ringworm that is characterized by dry crusts on the scalp with a musty odor is:
Tinea Favosa
Tinea is an infection at the opening of the:
Hair Follicles
All forms of tinea are:
Contagious
Pediculosis Capitis is a condition caused by:
The Head Louse
Scabies is an animal parasitic disease due to:
The Itch Mite
Pediculosis & Scabies are:
Contagious Infestations
Clients with tinea, pediculosis, or a scabies condition should be:
Referred to a Physician
Sycosis Vulgaris, Furuncles, & Carbuncles are the result of a:
Staphylococcal Infection
A chronic bacterial infection of the follicles in the beard & mustache areas is:
Sycosis Vulgaris
The common term for a Furuncle is:
Boil
Inflammations of the follicle caused by bacteria or irritation may be signs of:
Folliculitis or Pseudofolliculitis Barbae
When the pigment is gone & air spaces develop, the hair appears to be:
Grey
Terms that refer to the development of excessive body or facial hair are:
Hypertrichosis, Superfluous Hair, & Hirsuties
Split hair ends is known as:
Trichoptilosis
Beaded hair is technically known as:
Monilethrix
Brittle hair is technically known as:
Fragilitas Crinium
Trichorrhexis Nodosa is the technical term for:
Knotted Hair
The coloring pigment in the hair & skin is called:
Melanin
"Razor Bumps" is a common name for:
Pseudofolliculitis Barbae
Long hair found on the scalp, beard, chest, back, & Legs is:
Secondary Terminal Hair
The term that indicates the diameter of a hair strand is:
Hair Texture
Hair loss occurring in old age is called:
Alopecia Senilis