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EPP 675 Midterm
Terms in this set (131)
Are words which sound similar to the one intended but are ludicrously wrong in context.
What are four attributes of a good scientific paper?
true, new, important, comprehensible
What is an Errata
Reporting or rushing to publication
What is deliberate falsification
meaningly falsifying data
What is mirror writing
borrowing someone else's ideas, concepts, organization, etc. without giving cited credit! This is 'pseudoplagiarism'.
outright lifting of data or text from a published work of others without using quotes and citation or getting permission. This includes works published on the web.
Obscuring the meaning of the message by wrapping it in many layers of impressive verbiage
The overuse of modifiers which indicate some degree of doubt such as may, maybe, might, possibly, sometimes, perhaps, occasionally, should, probably, etc.
Specialized words, expressions, or vocabulary that are used by a particular profession or group and are difficult for others to understand, but at times are unavoidable.
What is Ethics?
The study of good and bad, right and wrong
What is science?
Is a search for reality and truth in the universe
making the data fit the needs of those who funded the research
Assimulation by a senior person of data and conclusions from a junior professional staff member without their consent or knowledge.
who wrote "Reflections on the Decline of Science in England" in 1830.
forcing data to fit a mean by dropping or adding data points (finagling data).
making many measurements, but only using those that fit what you are trying to prove (massaging the data or fudging)
recording fictitious results
performing extensive transformations or maneuvers to make inconclusive data appear conclusive
developing curves or predicting future trends based on too few data points
discarding all points which do not fit a predetermined curve
emphasizing only data trends which fit the pattern, ignoring the ones that do not
Fudging or Falsification
inventing data points and observations to augment the work
Manufacturing or Fabrication
creating new data sets de novo without actually doing the work
Six Keystones to Collaborating Ethically
caused by failing to exercise the care expected of a reasonably prudent person under the same circumstances
conducting the research with the intent to be fraudulent, making up or modifying data, techniques, evident etc.
someone helps to write the paper but did not otherwise contribute to the research
giving authorship to those who have not contributed anything to the research or the writing but are listed to increase the chances of publication
authorship given to those who have only a tenuous affiliation with the research (e.g. the department head)
is duplicate or redundant publication of the same study in multiple journals by the same authors
where an author will slice their work into thinner and thinner pieces to extract the greatest number of publications out of it
LPU (Least Publishable Unit)
Fragmentation of data into piecemeal paper production
MPU (Maximum Publishable Unit)
Contains overlong methods section with too many subdivisions
MRQ (Maximum Recycling Coefficient)
A codification of the number of times and different formats in which the same material may be published.
OPU (Optimum Publishable Unit)
Includes an amount of data that can be comfortably encompassed in a reasonable paper of 5 to 8 printed pages of text
For plagiarism to exist, the offending author must do BOTH of the following:
1. Use the ideas/writing/etc. of another person
2. Claim the work as their own by not citing the originator!
What is a Copyright?
The right of exclusive ownership by the author or creator of a work (written or otherwise)
Is the disclosure of alleged or suspected scientific misconduct.
reporting, discussing, or citing the work of others that is unpublished or in press, without their stated permission is an ethical violation
deals with the way words are put together
Guiding priciples of organization
Common sense - think of the reader
Logical order of presentation - first things first
Group ideas and topics together
The key characteristic of scientific writing is
is the logical sequence of ideas within a paragraph
Begin a paragraph with an
introductory sentence or a topic sentence
are words, phrases, or passages that link one subject or idea to another in writing
Transition words to show continuation of an idea
And, in addition, also, likewise, first, second, third, similarly
Transition words To introduce an item
Finally, moreover, furthermore
Transition words To introduce an example
For example, to illustrate, for instance, namely, indeed, specifically, on the other hand
Transition words To contrast
In contrast, on the other hand, or, whereas
Transition words To show that one idea is more important than another
But, nevertheless, however, on the contrary
Transition words To show cause and effect
As a result, for this reason, because, therefore, consequently
Transition words To show time
After, next, as, then, before, until, during, when, in the future, while, since
Transition words To summarize or end
In conclusion, to summarize
What is the New-Old constructin method?
starting new paragraphs means ending a paragraph with a new idea and starting the next paragraph with that idea as a launch point
Do not violate "Parallelism"
Important in constructing subheadings for sections of your writing
Parallelism - Internal Consistency within a Sentence
The process involves the following three steps: cooling the blanched vegetables, chopping them into small pieces, and distributing the product to canning stations.
Parallelism - Internal Consistency within a Sentence
The technical school offers training to help students move into technical careers like data processing, bookkeeping, landscaping, and electronics
Keep Sentences Short and Simple
Three types of sentences
contain one main idea
contain two main ideas that are closely related and joined by conjunctions (and, but, or)
have one main idea and one subordinate idea related to it (If...., then....)
are a word, phrase, or clause that describes a word that is not in or has been omitted from the sentence.
These are a word, phrase, or clause that is placed too far away from the noun or pronoun that it describes
is a modifier misplaced so that it may describe two situations.
Avoid begining scentences with antecedents
stacked nouns and modifiers
Never begin a sentence with
an abbreviation or an acronym
with a number
Many times using "The"
You go on record as agreeing with the scientist when you state
If you are going to challenge a finding or do not necessarily agree with it, use...
According to Smith"
is endowing plants or nonhuman things with human will or discretion.
There are three moods used in writing:
a grammatical mood that expresses doubts, wishes, and possibilities
Examples of subjunctive
"If the shuttle were to lose a tile, re-entry could be compromised."
"I wish I were funded for another year."
Try not to use
Seen or observed
What is an Elevator Speech?
A short talk (from 30 seconds to 2 minutes) that takes advantage of accidentally meeting someone in an elevator that provides an opportunity for you to convey a message about something (you, your research, your ideas, your value, etc.) to a person who is important
Steps for a good elevator speech
Describe the need
Explain what you do
Relate the impact
Use a soft take home message
are grammatical errors consisting of particularly confused words that are very common, so common that they have almost become a fixture in modern speech
Hopefully vs. I hope
Hopefully means "in a hopeful manner"
Many people use "hopefully" when they mean "I hope"
Affect vs. Effect
Affect is almost always a verb meaning to influence (Act on something)
Effect is almost always a noun meaning the result (End result)
Example of affect vs effect
Higher gas prices will have a bad effect and may even affect the number of people traveling on vacations this year
Fewer vs. Less
Use fewer with anything that you can count
Use less with things that cannot be counted
Many vs. Much
Many - great in number (countable)
Much - great in amount (measurable)
Amount vs. Number
Use amount for things that can be measured
Use number for things that can be counted
Decrease vs. Reduce
Decrease means to lessen in number
Reduce means to lessen in amount
Majority vs. Most
Majority applies to counts only
Most can be correct for bulk items and for counts
More than vs. Over
Use "more than" or "greater than" when you want to indicate that one quantity is greater than the other
Reserve the use of "over" for physical position (clouds passed over the solar collector) and for range of time (over the past 35 years)
Imply vs. Infer
A speaker or writer implies (transmitter of the message)
A listener infers (receiver of the message)
Cite vs. Sight vs. Site
Cite: Quote a passage, book, or author as evidence for a statement
Sight: Manage to see or observe something
Site: A place where something is located
Lose vs. Loose vs. Loss
Lose: cease to have something
Loose: Not firmly attached or held in place
Loss: the fact or process of losing something
Could care less vs. Couldn't care less
I could care less means that you do care some!
I couldn't care less means that you care so little, it is impossible to care less than you do at that moment.
Bad vs. Badly
Badly is an adverb and must modify a verb
Bad is an adjective and must modify a noun or pronoun
Example of bad vs badly
After John ate the leftovers, he felt bad
Mary's car needed oil badly
Regardless vs. Irregardless
Regardless is an adverb meaning "in spite of
Irregardless is not Standard English
Option vs. Alternative vs. Alternate
Option refers to a choice among three or more things"To treat this disease, we have three options."
Alternative is a noun that refers to a choice between two things"To measure temperature, we have two alternatives."
Alternate as a noun refers to a substitute"He is the alternate for the committee."
Alternate as an adjective, refers to something that occurs in turns"The zebra's coat has alternate stripes of white and black."
Insure vs. Ensure
Use insure only when writing about legal policies like life insurance
Use ensure in all other senses, for example, to guarantee or to promote
Complement vs. Compliment
Use complement when you are talking about completing, enhancing, or perfecting something
Use compliment when you are giving praise.
Farther vs. Further
Farther is used to express actual physical distances
Further is used when dealing with philosophical or ideological distances
Among vs. Between
Between is used with two choices
Among is used with more than two choices
Compare with vs. Compare to
Compare with is used when comparing things that belong in the same class"In his study, Barnhart compared drug treatments withradiation treatments."
Compare to is used when making an analogy to something of a different class"Freud compared the relationship of the ego and the id to a horse and its rider."
Due to vs. Because of
Due to is a phrase that always modifies a noun"The failure was due to the low temperature."
Because of is a phrase used to modify a verb (unless the verb is to be)"The steel failedbecause of the low temperature."
Principal vs. Principle
As an adjective, means 'main'
As a noun, means the person in charge
Principle- As a noun, means rule or code
The principal reason that order was restored was that the principalrelied on age-old principles of chaos management.
It's vs. Its
It's is a contraction of it is or it has
Its is a personal pronoun, the possessive form of it
Objective vs. Rationale
Objective is a goal or aim
Rationale is a reason or justification
Nauseated vs. Nauseous
Nauseated means to feel sick to one's stomach
Nauseous is the reason for being sick or causing one to become sick
Too vs. Two vs.To
Too is an adverb and means also, very, excessively
Two is an adjective and means the number 2
To is a preposition indicating place, purpose, time, etc.
Their vs. there vs. they're
Their is a possessive pronoun meaning belonging to them
means in that place
They're is a contraction of they are
Continuous vs. Continual
Continuous means without interruption
Continual means repeatedly
Content vs. Concentration
Content how much of something is contained in something else
Concentration means the content per unit mass or volume
Replicate vs. Replication
Replication is always a noun and means an exact copy
Replicate is always a verb and means to reproduce something exactly
The third replication responded differently than the others.
Differential vs. Various
Differential is a kind of equation or part of a transmission and it can also refer to differential gene expression
Various means different kinds or categories
Visual vs. Visible
Visual refers to an action or reaction by the eyes
Visible refers to the property of being seen
During vs. After
During means throughout a particular period or event
After means later in time than or subsequent to
And versus Or
And is a logical operator and means two or more items occur together
Or is used to link alternatives
Like versus As
Like is a preposition and introduces a prepositional phrase"Like Earth, the planet Mars has an elliptical orbit."
As is a conjunction and introduces clauses"The airfield looks as it did in 1937 when the dirigible exploded."
Connote vs. Denote
Connote means to imply or suggest something
Denote means to have a specific meaning
Approximately vs. About
Approximately is used when you are modifying a measurement's accuracy to within a fraction (continuous data)
About is used to designate uncertainty about a number used for quantifying discontinuous data
The radicle had emerged to approximately 25 mm long.
There were about fifty people in the faculty meeting
Is It a Parameter
is used legitimately is crystallography and mathematics or related fields only
means cure-all, but it is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cure"
is an adjective that means next to the last
That vs. Which
That is used for restrictive clauses (these cannot be left out without changing the meaning of the sentence) and are not set off with commas
Which is used for nonrestrictive clauses, is preceded by a comma, and does not change the meaning of the sentence if left out
Use American Spelling
Gray rather than grey
Recognize rather than recognise
Color rather than colour
Program rather than programme
The word "data"
Data is plural. Datum is singular and we rarely, if ever, talk about one piece of datum. Recently journals have started accepting the singular verb used with the subject 'data'.
What should you do before you start conducting research and writing?
What are some resources to literaure
Review articles: useful for finding additional resources
Grey literature: technical reports, government documents, white papers, conference proceedings
Report original research or experimentation, often in specific academic disciplines
Four Main Forms for Titles.
Nouns and adjectives (most common) Fungal Breakdown of Lignin and Cellulose
Complete sentence Fungi Are Better Lignin Degraders Than Bacteria
QuestionAre Fungi Better Lignin Degraders Than Bacteria?
Structure with a colonWhite rot fungi: lignin degradation characteristics
What is an abstract?
An abstract describes the problem and summarizes the major points of the research.
Two types of abstracts
Abstract for a manuscript -Contains information about the study, methods, results and discussion (usually the importance, very informative
Abstract for a meeting - like the manuscript abstract, it contains the same elements, but lacks the details, especially specific data
Steps for a goof abstract
The subject of the investigation
The problem being investigated (and biological subject)
The objectives or aims of the experiment
Description of the approach or methodology used (how the investigation was performed)
Summary of the main results of the investigation
The principal conclusions and implications
abstract should also
Identify the subject (problem)
Indicate the general method of study
Indicate the significance of the study
Use standard terminology that is widely accepted
Indicate balance; reflect the same emphasis given to various topics in the body of the paper
Indicate the scope of the paper
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