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20 terms

Mesopotamia

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Mesopotamia
Land between rivers
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Two rivers that flow into the Persian Gulf. Their plains formed Mesopotamia.
Cradle of Civilization
Mesopotamia is often referred to by this term, because the world's first civilization (Sumer) began there. It is considered the birth place of civilization.
Empire
A collection of kingdoms or regions under one powerful ruler.
Sumer
The world's first civilization. It was located in the southern area of Mesopotamia where the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers came together.
Fertile Crescent
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a semicircle from the Nile River to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.
Artisan
A skilled worker, often working with metal, clay, and wool
Epic
A long poem. The Epic of Gilgamesh was the first epic written down.
Irrigation
A system of bringing water to crops when rainfall was scarce or did not occur regularly. This helped keep soil fertile.
City-State
The ancient Mesopotamians organized themselves into these areas. They consisted of the city, the surrounding mud brick wall, and the surrounding farmland. They often competed among each other.
Ziggurat
A temple located in the center of each city-state. It housed the city-state's patron god. The term means "mountain of god" or "hill of heaven." Since it was a sacred place, only priests could enter it.
Cuneiform
The world's first writing system, created by Sumerians. The term means "wedge-shaped."
Stylus
A wedge-shaped writing instrument made out of reed plants. The Sumerians wrote on wet clay tablets with this tool.
Edubba
A Sumerian school where young boys learned reading, writing, and math.
Scribe
A professional writer or record keeper.
Domestication
When a plant or animal is taken from its natural habitat and used for human purposes. An example is use of animals as pets or on farms.
Social Structure
The different classes of workers and people in Mesopotamia
Fertile
Soil capable of producing vegetation
Priests
Religious leaders (also doctors in Mesopotamia)
Clay
An earthy, moist material used for bricks, pottery, and writing.

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