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Parenting and Parenting Styles • Socialization during early-mid childhood is strongly affected by the parents' approach to child rearing • 2 major dimensions on which different parents vary: -Parental warmth -Parental control

Authoritative Parenting

Make reasonable demands on children/ set
clear rules for family behaviour
• Set limits and insist that child obey
• Express warmth and affection
• Listen to children
• Encourage participation in family decision
• Move towards "autonomy granting"

Authoritative Parenting

• Rated as lively, happy
• Self-confident
• Less gender-typed
• High self-esteem, social maturity
• High academic achievement

Authoritarian Parenting

parents set rigid rules, enforce strict punishments, and rarely listen to their child's point of view

Authoritarian Parenting effects

•More anxious, unhappy
•Boys likely to react with anger/aggression
•Girls likely to withdraw from conflict
•Some social maladjustment
•Higher achievement than children of Permissive or Uninvolved

Permissive Parenting

an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control.

Permissive Parenting effects

•Impulsive, disobedient, rebellious
•Demanding and dependent (esp. boys)
•Poor persistence
•Poor self-control, school performance

Uninvolved Parenting Effects

•Deficits in attachment, cognition and play
•Poor social skills, high aggression
•Poor self-control, school performance

Uninvolved Parenting

style of parenting that provides neither warmth nor control and that minimizes the amount of time parents spend with children

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