1. External Environments, Part 3
- Institutional Environments (last lecture)
- Inter-Organizational Environments
- Organizational domains
- Sets, populations, and fields of organizations
- Variation, selection, trait diffusion of organizations
2. Organizational Networks/Networks of Organizations
- Network coupling, density, change, competition, reciprocation, and dependency
1. Organizational sets
An organization SET refers to the relations1 a focal organization has to other organizations in its operating environment including consumers, suppliers, competitors, regulators etc. with whom it must regularly interact to survive and prosper...
1. Relations in organizational sets reflect funding sources, partnerships, suppliers, clients and customers, competitors, regulators, etc...
immediate operating environment
-- resources/ opportunities/ constraints
-- resources -- people, personnel, info
---- ways to be related to other organizations
competition for grants -- other non profits asking for money --- limited amount of resources == competition -- non profits -- can create cooperation too (partnerships)
- funding sources
- suppliers (who/where)
- clients/ customers/ patrons
- rules outside organization that helps shape it (how use $, where it goes)
---- better sense of environment to get that throughput + survive over time
- local, regional, national insurers -> Kaiser -> to do what it does
Organizational environments show us ...
1. The influence that institutions—regulative, normative, and cognitive—have on organizational life
2. The role that organizational demographics play— sets, populations, and fields— in the creation, variation, selection, diffusion, and death of organizations and organizational traits
3. The role network relations among organizations play in organizational demographics as reflected in reciprocal relations, competition, dependency, coupling, density, and changing ties (relations) over time...
1. effects on organizational life
2. track creation, variation, diffusion, to understand why one org. exists and the other doesn't
3. organizations in groups