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Lifespan development examines patterns of growth, change, and () in human behavior across the life spane
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Terms in this set (248)
The () is the process of posing and answering research questions using controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of datascientific methodif a journalist uses a correlational study to suggest that eating dark chocolate is good for your health, what mistake is the journalist making?assuming that correlation always equals causationthe strength and direction of a relationship between two factors is represented by acorrelation coefficientan investigator is studying the effectiveness of two new types of parenting intervention for children with disruptive behavior. In this example, the type of intervention would be the () varialbe and the amount of disruptive behavior would be the () variableindependent; dependent() is designed specifically to test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge, whereas () is meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problemstheoretical research; applied researchwhich statement best represents the view of developmentatlists?growth and change occur in all aspects of a person's life across their lifespana study that seeks to examine how stable shyness is across the life span is focused on () developmentpersonalitythe financial crisis of the 2010s exerted what type of effect on the cohort of children growing up during this period?history-graded influencesShalise believes that child development is a process of continuous change. Her classmate Evan says that development follows a pattern of discontinuous change. Who is correct?Both: a child's development is marked by both continuous and discontinuous changeErikson's () theory was created as an alternative psychodynamic view emphasizing social interaction with other peoplepsychosocial developmentwhich statement describes the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning?classical conditioning involves automatic responses and operant conditioning involves voluntary responsesWhich perspective emphasizes how people internally represent and think about the worldcognitive perspectivewhich perspective contends that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their liveshumanistic perspectivewhat is the key factor guiding developmental perspectives that consider the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, and social worlds?contextual factorswhich perspective seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritanceevolutionary perspectivesome lifespan developmentalists use a () approach, drawing on several perspectives simultaneouslyeclectica () is a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be testedhypothesiswhat is the best type of study to determine if daily reading with a parent can increase the speed at which a child learns to read independently?experimentalalan has decided to conduct a naturalistic observation of children and friendships. Which location would produce the most accurate results?a playgroundin an experiment, the () is exposed to the treatment variable being studied; the () is nottreatment group; control groupa scientist interested in the processes of cognitive change during childhood and decides to see how many words children of various ages can remember after on exposure to a list of words. What type of research is this scientist conducting?theoretical researchwhich type of research design takes the longest amount of time to complete?longitudinalresearchers must obtain () from participants before their involvement in a studyinformed consentThe human genetic code, transmitted at the moment of conception and stored in our genes, is composed of specific sequences ofDNAWhy are males more likely to have red-green color blindness?they have only one x chromosomeThe field of () studies the effects of heredity on psychological characteristics, such as personality and habitsbehavioral geneticsa pediatrician learns that a child has a limited appetite and a yellowish hue to the eyes. blood tests show that the child's blood cells are shaped differently than is typical. Which inherited disorder is the child most likely to have?sick cell anemiathe prenatal procedure by which a sample of fetal cells is drawn from the fluid surrounding the fetus is calledamniocentesisThe fact that many human traits are determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors is referred to asmultifactorial transmissionbecause the genetic makeup of () twins is nearly identical, researchers can conclude that variations in their behavior is probably due to environmental factorsmonozygoticwhich of the following can be seen as an indication that intelligence has a strong genetic basis?brianna's iq scores were nearly the same as those of her identical twin suzannaone major personality trait that has been linked to genetic factors is (), defined as the degree to which a person is outgoing and seeks contact with othersextroversiontheresa has been described as a natural athlete, her room at home is full of soccer ball, basketballs, and softball bats. this is an example of how () can influence ()genes; the environmenthow are sperm and ova alike?both enter the fallopian tubea () occurs when pregnancy ends before the developing child is able to survive outside the mother's wombmiscarriagea baby born 39 weeks after conception and weighing 3400 grams would be characterized asneither preterm nor small-for-gestational ageduring the end of her pregnancy, betsy's fetus was in the breech position, so the doctors decided to surgically remove the baby from the uterus. What type of birth did Betsy and her baby have?cesareanwhich statement regarding infant mortality in the us is true?infant mortality is higher in the US then some countries due to having higher rates of low-birthweight deliveriesEach human parent usually contributes () to the developing zygoteone of the two chromosomes in each pair of 23when a cluster of cells in the ovum splits off within the first two weeks after fertilization and forms two nearly identical zyogtes, the result ismonozygotic twinsthe () pair of chromosomes determines the sex of the child23rdmost traits are governed by a combination of gene pairs. This is calledpolygenic inheritancehumans have approximately () genes25000the presence of an extra x chromosome in male babies produces (), a disease characterized by genetic abnormalitiesKlinefelter's syndromthe non invasive prenatal testing procedure that is commonly used to determine the size and shape of the baby and to monitor developmental patterns is calledultrasound sonographya persons (), defined as enduring patterns of arousal and emotionality in an individual, has a strong genetic basis, but it can be influenced by environmental factors such as family traits and behaviorstemperamentthe most informative way that researchers can learn about the different effects of nature and nurture on human development is through studies ofidentical twins raised separatelywhich of the following is an environmental factor that may influene the intelligence of a child?friendships with intelligent peersnoticing that their baby daughter seems to love singing and dancing, her nonmusical parents stream music into the house constatnly and purchase a piano and guitar. This isgenes influencing the environmentthe joining of sperm and ovum to create the single-celled zygote from which life begins is referred to asfertilizationduring the () stage of prenatal development, the fertilized egg, or blastocyst, attaches itself to the wall of the uterusgerminalin the procedure know as (), a man's sperm is used to fertilize a woman's ova in a laboratoryin vitro fertilizationan environmental agent such as a drug, chemical, virus, or other factor that produces a birth defect is called ateratogenthe use of (), which is designed to increase the size of the opening of the vagina, has fallen into disfavor in recent year and is diminishing in frequencyepisiotomy() is a childbirth technique based on the principle that giving birth should be as natural as possible and should not involve the use of medications or medical interventionThe Bradley Methoda baby who is still unborn 2 weeks after the mothers due date is consdered a () infantpostmatureone factor in the increased reliance on cesarean delivery in the US is ()the greater use of fetal heart monitorsIn the US, which of the following is a major reason for the high rate of infant mortality in African American births compared with Caucasian births?higher rates of povertyone of the most important ways behavior becomes integrated is through the development of various body (), which are repetitive, cyclical patterns of behaviorrhythmsthe average annual weight gain for both boys and girls in middle childhood is5-7 poundssecondary sex characteristics are the () that do not involve the sex organs directlyvisible signs of sexual maturityalthough young adults are generally healthy, by their early 20s, (), a natural physical decline brought about by increasing age, has already begunsenescenceprojections suggest that by 2050, people age 65 and over will account for nearly () of the populationone quarterduring the preschool period, a child's () grows faster than any other part of the bodybrainas children grow, the two halves of the brain become increasingly differentiated and specialized in a process calledlateralizationthe infants tendency to turn its head toward things that touch its cheek isknown as the () reflexrootingadvances in gross motor skills during the preschool years are related to () in areas of the brain related to balance and coordinationbrain development and myelination of neurons() is an example of a fine motor skill that infants typically master within the first yearpicking up small objectsthe () approach to perception considers how information that is collected by various individual sensory systems is integrated and coordinatedmultimodalthe ability of young infants to make fine discrimination between sounds is particularly important in the development of the ability to understand ()languageblindness, the most serious visual impairment, is defined as visual activity below () after correction20/200the key symptom of presbycusis, which is common in middle adulthood, isa decline in the ability to hear high-pitched soundswhich eye disease occurs when pressure in the fluid of the eye increasesglaucomaon eof the major body rhythms, the degree of awareness to both internal and external stimulation, is known as an infantsstateby the time children reach age () their proportions are similar to those of adults6which of the following hormones plays an important role in puberty?androgen, leptin, estorgenexercise during the period of middle adulthood can help to reduce (), the thinning of the bones that occurs later in lifeosteoporosisthe method of defining how old a person is taking into account a person's physical and psychological well being is callfunctional age() allows established neurons to build more elaborate communication networks with other neuronssynaptic pruningduring the preschool years, () is completed in the hippocampus, an area of the brain associated with memorymyelination() are unlearned, organized, and involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimulireflexesresearch has found that during middle childhood,boys and girls have similar motor skillby the end of the preschool years, most children show (), which is a clear preference for using one hand over the otherhandednessvery young infants who are breast fed are better able to distinguish their mothers through the sense of () than bottle-fed infantssmell() is a particularly useful ability, helping babies as young as siz months to acknowledge heights and avoid fallsdepth perceptionsevere and early loss of hearing can impair () thinkingabstractthe virtually universal decline in near vision in middle adulthood is calledpresbyopiaaccording to the peripheral slowing hypothesis, the increased reaction time of older people is attributable to changes in thenerves that branch from the brain and spinal cordAccording to psychologists Arnold Lazarus and Susan Folkman, the secondary appraisal stage of dealing with stress is focused onassessing whether one can cope with the challenge() is the field that studies the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factorspsychoneuroimmunologyaccording to current research, which of the following is a consequence of stress?decreased functioning of the immune systema man struggling at wo jobs while attending community college at night constantly tells himself to cheer up because tings will get better and he should congratulate himself for having a job at all. This is an example ofemotion-focused copingThe ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive following profound adversity is calledresilienceWhich of the following statements about malnutrition and undernutrition is correct?malnutrition is more sever than undernutrition(), and eating disorder commonly characterized by binge eating followed by purging, poses real risks, including the possibility of a chemical imbalance that can trigger heart failurebulimiain addition to absitinence from sex, what is an effective way to prevent the human papilloma virus (HPV)?vaccinesphysical declines brought about by an individual's behavioral choices or environmental factors are referred to as () agingsecondaryalzheimer's is produced when there is a malfunction in the production of ()beta amyloid precursor proteinguidelines of the american academy of pediatrics suggest that babies should start eating solid foods at around () months6The health benefits of exercise are seen after only30 minutes of moderate exercise at least 5 days a weekmenopause marks the end of woman's naturalfertilityone change that occurs frequently during the male climacteric isenlargement of the prostate glandwhich of the following is a psychological factor in determining a person's susceptibility to serious illness as aging occurs?a sense of control over one's living environmentaccording to psychologist Arnold lazarus and susan folkman, the primary appraisal stage on dealing with stress is focused onassessing the implication of a potentially stress-inducing eventone recent educational trend that appears to be increasing stress among school-age children isan increased emphasis on testing and homeworkaccording to current research, which of the following is an indirect effect of stressfailure to exercise regularlyunconscious strategies to distort or deny the seriousness of a potentially stressful situation or to insulate oneself from feeling its effects are calleddefensive copinga woman stressfully juggling a job, a college course, and a young child at home arranges a better schedule with her boss, calls two of her professors to change the due dates on major course assignments, and asks her day car provider for extended hour of care two evenings per week. This is an example ofproblem-focused copinganorexia nervosa is a severe disorder in whichindividuals refuse to eatthe most common STI, HPV, can producesterilitywhich of the following chronic diseased begins to routinely affect people in middle adulthood?type 2 diabetesthe type b behavior pattern is characterized bypatience() is defined as a progressive brain disorder that produces memory loss and confusionAlzheimer's diseaseWhich of the following statements about breastfeeding is truebreast milk offers some immunity to childhood diseaseswhat effect does exercise have on bones?exercise reduces bone thinningwhich of the following statements about sexuality in middle adulthood is true?for those who can or choose to enjoy it, sex contributes to wellness across the life span, face that applies to old age as well as to younger periods of lifewhich of the following 66 yr old women illustrates an environmental factor that may affect her susceptiblity to serious illness ahead?Bess knows the risks of smoking but continues to smoke a pack a dayit is estimate that between () percent of elderly people do not have adequate nutrition in the US15 and 50The four stages of cognitive development, according to Piaget, aresensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operationalaccoring to piaget, () is the process by which people can understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinkingassimilationpiaget believed the major achievement of the final substage in the sensorimotor stage issymbolic thoughtone hallmark of the preoperational stage is (), thinking that does not take into account the viewpoint of othersegocentric thoughuderstanding the because 3+5=8, 5+3=8 is an example of (), a characteristic of concrete operational thoughtreversibilitycritics of piaget note that his theory of cognitive development overlooks the () systems that are present from early infancysensory and perceptualresearch suggests that piaget may have erred in asserting that preschoolers have little understanding ofnumbers() thinking is a view of the world where something is either right or wrong with no shades of graydualisticperry found that as college students were exposed to new ideas and viewpoints, they came to understand that it is possible to hold () on an issuemultiple perspectivesSchaie's final stage of cognitive development, the () stage, occurs in late adulthood as people focus on tasks that have personal meaningreintegrativevygotsky viewed children as () who learn cognitive strategies and other skills from adults and peer mentorsapprenticesvygotsky believed that societal expectations about () play a role in how children come to understand the worldgenderaccording to vygotsky, the level at which a child can almost but not fully perform a task independently (but can do so with assistance) is the child'szone of proximal developmentscaffolding involves helping children to () appropriatelythink about and frame a taskvygotsky's theory that children's comprehension of the world flows from their () is increasingly well-supported by reseearchinteractions with adults and peerspiaget believed that the basic building blocks of our understanding of the world are mental structures called (), organized patters of functioning that adapt and change with mental developmentschemain substage 4 of the sensorimotor period, infants begin to use (), in which they combine and coordinate several schema to generate a single act or solve a problemgoal-directed behaviorThe knowledge that develops in the preschool years that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects is calledconservationin middle childhood, children begin to apply () to solve concrete problemslogical operations() is reasoning that allows adolescents to use abstract logic in the absence of concrete examplespropositional thoughtcritic of piaget believe his timeline for the development of both () is too lateobject permanence and conservationresearch shows that the progress of cognitive development cannot be understood without considering a child'sculturelabouvie-vief believes cognitive development continues beyond adolesence. her theory of () thought acknowledges that adult problems must sometimes be solved in relativistic termspostformalperry found that students entering college tended to engage in () thinking, regarding everything as either right or wrong and people as good or baddualisticaccording to schaie's stages of cognitive development, young adults' focus shifts from the future to the here-and-now as they enter the () stageachievingbygotsky viewed cognitive development as the product ofsocial interactionsaccording to vygotsky, () establish the institutions that promote development by providing opportunities for cognitive growthculture and societyvygotsky refers to the assistance or structuring provided by parents, teachers, or skilled peers as ()scaffoldingaccording to vygotsky, cognitive development occurs when new information is presented by an adult or skilled peer within a child'szone of proximal developmentbygotsky's theory is sometimes criticized for overlooking how basic cogntiive processes such as () developattention and memory() approaches to cognitive development seek to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and stor informationinformation processingtthe three basic aspects of information processing are encoding, storage, and ()retrievalthe enduring structures of information processing that remain constant over the course of development are known as ()cognitive architectureaccording to the three-system model, the () is the initial process by which information is very briefly held before further processingsensory storeThe key difference between information processing and Piagetian approaches is that information processing approaches focus onquantitative rather than qualitative changesfour year old Carla is engaged in playing with a toy truck, while her 10 year old brother Vincent in wrapped up in a book. the truck and the book are said to be different () stimuli for each childattention-holding() is the ability to allocate attentional resources based on desired goalsplanningone plausible reason why infants appear to remember less than older children and adults is the lack of ()an extensive vocabularythe memory of events from one's own life, known as () memory, is not very accurate until after age 3autobiographicalAs they grow older, children begin to recall memories in terms of (), which are general representations in memory of a sequence or series of eventsscriptsif it is necessary to question children for legal purposes, which of the following strategies has been shown to increase the accuracy of their recollections?question children as soon as possible after the eventcompared with whole-language approaches to reading instruction, code-based approaches focus more on ()sounding out letters and words to discover their meaningwhich of the following is a critical thinking skill?identifying and questioning assumptions in statementsaccording to the information processing perspective, older children first resolve preschoolers difficulty with the Piagetian conservation problem when their improved ()attention span permits them to attend simultaneously to the height and width of the glasscompared with other approaches, the information processing approach pays more attention tothe workings of memory, attention, and other mental activities() is the process by which information is recorded in a form usable to memoryencodingwithout conscious thought, children develop the ability to link together stimuli that occur simultaneously, thereby developing an understanding of concepts, this procces is an example ofautomizationaccording to the three-system model, it is in the () that thoughtful, deliberate information processing first takes placeshort-term memory() are stimuli, such as words, images, smells, or sounds that people use to search and locate information stored in long-term memoryretrieval cueswhich of the following summarizes the key principle of information processing theories of development?with age and practice, children's thinking gradually becomes more sohpisticatedthe increasing ability as children age to tune into certain stimuli while tuning out others is the result of the increasing () that comes with agecontrol of attentionin general, researchers believe that compared to memory processing in adults, memory processing in young children sigenerally similarrecent memory research among infants, children, and adults show thatthe physical trace of a memory in the brain is relatively permanent across all agesantony repeats information that he wants to recall over and over until he can recite it from memory. This is is an examplea memory control strategyarletts used to believe that she could simply look at a group of vocabulary words once and remember them, now she realizes that she has to practice them, this is evidene that arletta has developed () skillsmetamemorywhen questioned repeatedly, children are likely to describe with confidence events and situations that never happened. these descriptions are referred to asfalse memorieswhen questioning children for legal purposes, the accuracy of their recollections can be improved byusing a neutral setting, not a courtroom or police office, for questioningcompared with code-based approaches to reading instruction, whole-language approaches focus more onmaking context-based guesses about word meaningwhich of the following is a critical thinking skill?weighing alternative solutions to given problemsone clear advantage of theinformation processing approach over the approaches of piaget and vygotsky is itsreliance on precise concepts that can be tested by researchThe basic sounds of language that can be combined to produce words and sentences are calledphonemes() is a universal phenomenon in which infants spontaneously produce all of the sounds from every languagebabblingone word utterances, called (), stand for a whole phrase and derive their meaning from the context in which they are usedholophrases(), in which new words are associated with their meaning after only a brief encounter, is responsible for the 14,000 word vocabulary of the average 6 year oldfast mappingroberto points out to his mother that he purposefully tries to use smaller words with his little brother than he does with his older brother. this is an example ofmetalinguistic awarenessa mother who rewards a child for making a sound that approximates ma is an example of which perspective on language acquisition?learning theory approachThe () approach to language acquisition posits that children are born with the innate capacity to use language, which emerges as they maturenativistwhat do the learning theory approach and the interactionist approach to language development both have in common?both approaches emphasize the importance of the environment on language developmentthe () hypothesis suggests that language provides categories that help children construct perceptions of people and events in their surroundingslinguistic-relativityvygotsky believed that by age 2, the development of thought and language have becomeinterdependentthe use of rising pitch, singsong intonation, repetitive sounds, and short, simple sentences are all characteristics ofinfant-directed speechin a classic study, parents classified as professionals spent significantly more time () their children than did parents who received welfare assistanceinteracting withit is estimate that by age 4, children from poorer families have been exposed to some () fewer words than children of more affluent families13 milliondisadvantages faced by children who lack English language skilled includeslow academic progress and isolation from other children(), an approach to educating students whose first language is not English, initially teaches the cirriculum in the student's native language while the child is learning Englishbilingual education() are the rules that govern the meanings of words and sentencessemanticswhen 2 year old Helana says "My socks on" rather than "I put on my socks", she is usingtelegraphic speechin the months spanning their third birthday, the number of ways children combine words and phrases to form sentences, known as (), doubles each monthsyntax() is the aspect of language relating to communicating effectively and appropriately with otherspragmaticsjeremy age 6 is trying to wait pateintly so he can receive two marshamllows instead of taking one marshmallow right away. Based on research what strategy would he be most inclined to use to help him wait?sing a song to remind himself that he will get a bigger treat if he waitswho argued for the nativist approach to understanding language developmentNoam Chomskychomsky's analysis suggests that all the world's languages share a similar underlying structure he callsuniversal grammaraccording to the (), language development comes about through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstancesinteractionist perspectivethe proposition that language shapes and may even determine the ways people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world is known as thelinguistic-relativity hypothesisunlike whorf, piaget believed thatthinking shapes languageinfant-directed speech isvery similar across culturesin infant-directed speech, parents tend to use twice as many () with their daughters than with their sonsdiminutivesthe greater the () children have been exposed to, the better they perform on a variety of measures of intellectual achievement at age 3number and variety of words() is the educational approach that teaches English language learners solely in Englishimmersionbilingual speakers show () than students who speak only one languagegreater cognitive flexibilityone characteristic of alfred binet's classic work on intelligence testing that has survived to the present day isa pragmatic rather than theoretical approach to measuring intelligencethe () is a particularly flexible intelligence test that permits the administrator to paraphrase the questions, translate them into the child's first language, and use gestures to help children understand the testKaufman Assessment Battery for Childrencompared with group-administered tests, individually administered tests tend to be moreengaging and motivational for examineesdisparities in the IQ test performance of groups of examinees based on anything other than intelligence are chiefly examples ofcultural biasaccording to sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, the () component accounts for the demands of everyday, real-world environmentscontextualThe (), created by Arnold Gesell, provides a summary of an infant's overall competence in comparison to others of a similar agedevelopmental quotient() is the ability to identify a stimulus previously experienced through one sense by using another sensecross-modal transferencean assessment of a student's likelihood of academic success in college, such as the ACT< is an example of a () test, though there is some questions as to whether it also tests students prior academic achievementaptitudea mathematics test that uses questions with contexts from the realm of banking and the stock market is likely to favor members of which groupstudents from affluent familiesthe process by which older people focus on particular areas of strength to compensate for declines in other areas is calledselective optimizationwhen applied to children with special needs, the term least restrictive environment refers tothe educational setting most simiilar to that of children without special needsaccording to professional classifications, an intellectual disability is characterized by significant limitation in both intellectual functioning andadaptive behaviorpeople with IQ scores between 50 or 55 and 70 are classified as having () intellectual disabilitymildas defined by the government, the term gifted includes people demonstrating high performance in which areasartistic, creative, and intellectualin jeremy's gifted and talented program, he remains at grade level but attends special programs and uses individualized activities to match his abilities. His program uses the () approachenrichmentwhich of the following is an important legacy left by alfred binet's work on intelligence testinga focus on linking intelligence with academic successin the (), an orally administered test, young children may be asked questions about their everyday activities or asked to copy complex fixersStanford-Binet Intelligence Scalewhich of the following is an advantage of group-administered tests over individually administered teststhey are more efficient and less expensive to administera test is considered to have () when it produces consistent results each time it is administeredreliabilitywhen it comes to intelligence, some people say there is no substitute for experience, which concept reflects this perspectivecrystallized intelligenceone advantage of measures of information processing in infants, such as speed of processing and visual recognition memory, over developmental measures is that information processing assessmentare better predictors of future IQ scoresan assessment of a students knowledge of the spanish language is an example of a () testachievementa language arts test that uses examples of bus and subway schedules to measure reading comprehension is likely to facor members of which groupstudents from urban communitiesschaie's study of intelligence in older people found that, in general, as people agecrystallized intelligence remains steadyone problem with using cross-sectional studies to investigate intelligence across different ages is that results may be skewed bycohort effectsaccording to the principles of () expectional children are taught in the regular classroom except in cases where their exceptionality would affect their learningmainstreamingthe most common biological causes of intellectual disability aredown syndrome and fetal alcohol syndromethe intellectually disabled with the lowest intellecutal score (below 20 or 25) and adaptive abilities are classified as having a () intellectual disabilityprofoundresearch on giftedness has found that gifted people tend to be () than their non-gifted peershealthiershawna's gifted and talented program permits her to move through the cirriculum at her own pace and even to skip a grade, if she shows the ability to do so. Her program uses to () approachacceleration