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HIST 1302 Unit 2 Exam
Terms in this set (159)
Why did people leave Europe in late 19th and early 20th century?
poverty at home, political turnboil
What were tenements? What were some of the major problems with tenements and urban housing?
Tenements - multi family rental complex "slum"
Problems - fire, sanitation and disease risk, air pollution, crime and corruption, water contamination
What was the effect of Scientific Management on labor/employees?
Workers were required to produce more output at higher speeds.
heavily regulated input costs effect how the workers perform, critique toward workers, workers resident this and go on strikes, did not like additional supervision @work
Who were the Muckrakers? How did they get their name? What influence did the Muckrakers have on the problems of the day?
Muckrakers - journalists who wrote about issues in urban and industrial societies, very influential
The muckrakers provided detailed, accurate journalistic accounts of the political and economic corruption and social hardships caused by the power of big business in a rapidly industrializing United States. The name muckraker was pejorative when used by U.S. Pres.
-Ida Tarbell changed the entire oil industry
-raise public awareness and anger at urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, prostitution, and child labor.
What is the definition of Progressivism?
a general reform movement rooted in the belief that gov. experts could reform American society and solve the problems caused by industrialiazation, including labor duties and the ills of crowded urban living
What were some of the state and local reforms the Progressives pushed for?
- raised taxes
- health codes
- tighter regulation on railroads
- child labor
- working women
- residency requirement
- voting, political primaries chose electors
- cut the power of political bosses
- control of public utilities
What were some of the Progressives' missteps?
rollback of idea that voting is granted to all citizens, disefranchesment for African Americans, search for fit voters
What social role did Progressives want the government to play?
order, efficiency, centralized managment
What did Robert LaFollette do in Wisconsin? What was the Wisconsin Idea?
Robert LaFollette - cleaned up Wisconsin gov.
Wisconsin Idea - state controls railroads, nomination to public office, taxation of wealth
What issues of Progressivism are still debated today?
Impartiality, Gov. Cure-all, bureacruacy
How did Roosevelt secure the Panama Canal Zone from Columbia?
Battle Ship, John Hay negotiations (Cuba declined) 6 mile wide canal zone, 10,000,000 mil payed to Columbia finance and support a panamanian Revolution against Columbia
What was the greatest obstacle to the construction of the Panama Canal?
disease and sanitation (maleria, yellow fever)
How did the US improve construction conditions in the Canal Zone?
cutting grass, cleaning bush, draining swamps, landscaping project, wipe out mosqutios and rats
What were the three parts of the canal?
1) Gaillard Cut (Southern portion)
2) Chagres River (center) Lake Gatun
3) Locks themselves
What was the central aim of Roosevelt's antitrust policy?
President Theodore Roosevelt "busted" (or broke up) many trusts by enforcing what came to be known as "antitrust" laws. The goal of these laws was to protect consumers by promoting competition in the marketplace. With the Sherman Act in place, and trusts being broken up, business practices in America were changing.
How did Roosevelt deal with the Coal Strike?
- objective role, bring sides together, square deal, bring down everyone together
What was the Square Deal?
the equal advocacy of the rights of the capitol, labor and consumer protection
The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program, which reflected his three major goals: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection
Who led Roosevelt's conservation efforts?
What was the goal of Roosevelt's conservation efforts? How well did they work?
- manage the use of federal lands
- minning, foresting
- no uniformity in water
Who was the Socialist candidate in the 1904 campaign? What were the major issues?
Socialist: Eugene V. Debs
Issues: protective tarrif, imperialism, free education, public ownership of railroads
How did Roosevelt win the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize? How did this affect relations with the combatants?
He acted as a mediator, balanced Russian and Japanese interests, Anti-Russian, Japan became a rival for both felt like they were rived a victory
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
if Europe stays out of the Americas, the U.S. will not interfere in the European affairs
How did the Venezuela Crisis lead to the Roosevelt Corollary? What was Big Stick Diplomacy?
President refused to pay foreign debt, Europe blockaded Venexuelan ports, blockade of Venezuela, if there is no solution, the U.S. will interfere
Big Stick Diplomacy - big stick diplomacy, or big stick policy refers to President Theodore Roosevelt's foreign policy: "speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far." Roosevelt described his style of foreign policy as "the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of foreign affairs"
- "interational police" put an end to chronic unrest or wrongfoing in Western Hemisphere
Broadly, what was Roosevelt's Anti-Trust Policy at first? How did this change?
not to prevent the rise of coorporations but to supervise control, with reason limits
how did it change? - personal vendetta against big business
What caused Roosevelt to push for laws regulating the food and drug industries?
Upton Sinclair Book "The Jungle"
Describe the antitrust case against Standard Oil. Whose book began the government investigation into the company?
1863 Rockerfeller "Standard Oil" bought up Cleveland and expanded, trust controlled 90% of refirming standard Oil Trust needs to be dissolved exchanged the stock to bring back the old trust and new stadard oil company.
How did J.P. Morgan stop the Panic of 1907?
- Morgan supplied gov. with gold
- the country's leading finances met at J.P. Morgans home, Morgan played bridge, accepted or declined
- U.S. Steel acquisition owned by NY brokage, took bankers into library, constructed a plan had the connections to solve crisis
- ANTITRUST CASE should not be filled
- virtual declaration - I am the buyer
What were the multiple purposes Roosevelt had in sending out the Great White Fleet?
Purposes: to demonstrate that U.S. was global power to Japan, Spain took Am. minds off the economic turnoil, help navy to get experience
Who were the candidates in the Election of 1908? Why didn't Roosevelt run?
1) William Howard Taft (Rep)
2) William Jennings Bruan (Dem)
3) Eugene V. Debs (Soc)
He said he did two terms, he did what he had to do
What was Dollar Diplomacy?
- a natural evolution of Rooselvet's foreign policy in Am, program to combine military mile states and U.S. diplomacy along with to further U.S. business interest overseed in Am. "extention of Monroe to protect from Doctrine debt"
Using US money to control countries by lending them money
Describe how Taft's conservation policy caused a rift in the Republican Party.
Pinchot challenged Ballinger, Pinchot went far, many republicans already fall out, this conflict made them distrust Taft more
What was the decision in the Standard Oil case? The US Steel Case? What legal precedents came out of these decisions?
Standard Oil Decision: it wasn't trust, company has to be broken up, 32 companies, Exon (NJ)
The U.S. Steel Case:
Decision - U.S. steel was allowed to remain in business
Legal precedents - "Rule of Reason" not all trusts and big business are bad, only if a trust did illegal actions they would be investigated for legal action
What did the 16th Amendment do?
the Congress shall have power to lay + collect taxes on income, graduated income tax, applied uniformity across all states
What two new states did Taft bring into the Union?
New Mexico (1912)
What kind of politician was William Howard Taft? Who was the real politician in the Taft family?
Taft as politician - life of a judge, conservation programs is not the last clash with republicans, allieanated old fashion corruption republican without a party
Real politician - Hallon Taft
How did the Republican party split during the 1912 Election?
barbed wire around speaker stand, Roosevelts people's challenged Taft's convention
How did the "Bullmoose Party" come into existence? What was its actual name?
Came into existence by: nominated Rooselvelt primary system for national elections, direct election of senators, women's suffrage, progressive mesurments
Actual name: Progressive Party
Whose political career reached its peak during this election?
Eugene V Debs.
How did the New Freedom compare to the New Nationalism?
New Freedom - (wilson) regulation, strong anti-trust legislation, banking reform, tarriff reductions
New Nationalism - (Rooselvelt) wider program of business regulation, social welfare legislation, early form of activist welfare state, almost assassinated
What was Henry Ford's contribution to American industry?
- marketing and developing
- black colors and lower prices, more sales cut production
- modern assembly line, 5 day work day
What was Henry Ford's attitude toward unions?
Henry Ford was anti-union. He did all in his power to keep his factory union-free. In an effort to diffuse any attempts he went so far as to set up a fake union called the Knights of Dearborn, which was not a union at all. It was Ford's smoke-and-mirrors magic act.
What did the 17 th Amendment do?
adressed populist issue, direct election of state senators, allowed senators to transittion from legislative election to popular elecetion
What was the Underwood Tariff?
- reduced the average tariff on imported goods to 30% of the price of the goods
- was he fulfillment of a campaign pledge wilson made about a tariff, office in the capital, duty items
What was the purpose of the Federal Reserve System?
deal with Panic of 1907, country's central bank, bankers bank, the fed. control credit, smooth out business cycle
-the central bank of the United States. It was created by the Congress to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system.
What was the function of the Clayton Antitrust Act?
solved problems with Sherman Antri trust act, monopolies, labor tactics, and exempted labor, agricultural organization from anti trust laws, legalized strikes, boycotts, hostile takeovers,
Who was Victoriano Huerta? What did his government do in Tampico?
Victoriano Huerta - general, ruled country liked the dictator
Tampico- U.S. ships in Tampico, Huerta's gov. arrested 14 U.S. sailors, Wilson decided to humiliate him, said Huerto needs to solute to Am flag.
What happened in Veracruz?
American forces occupied the port, 18 Am. died in effort, Am. invasion of the Mexican Port, deffensive line expanded, gun fight
Why did the US invade Mexico in 1916-17? What happened to Colonel Julio Cardenas?
Villa's Raiders killed Am. settlements
Colonel Julio Cardenas - died in a shooting, litenant on Pershing staff (Patton) took silver lace sattle and killed Cardenas
How did Wilson deal with the Caribbean nations?
not afraid of using Am. muscle to help deployed Am. forces to Nicaragua, Am. troops in Heidi, marines supervised security, running the island of Hispaniola
Who were the three 'Progressive' Presidents discussed in this chapter?
What led to Europe's century of peace?
fall of Napoleon
What national rivalries still occurred?
Serbia and Australia Hungary, Balkan Peninsula, Britain vs. Germany, tension between France and Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy, Italian lands under Australia
What was the Triple Alliance? The Triple Entente?
Tripple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (millitary alliance)
Tripple Entente - Britain, france, Russia, friendly agreement
How did the incident involving Archduke Francis Ferdinand, Gavrilo Princip and the Black Hand lead to the outbreak of World War I
Archduke was assassinated by the Garrillo Princip (assassin) Austria declares war on Serbia, Germany declared war France and Russia declared war on Germany
What was the Von Schlieffen Plan?
quick mobilization of the German military to defeat France and capture Paris, capture Paris from the North
What was important about the 1st Battle of the Marne
both sides had 500,000 Germans casualties, 1 mill people, they turned back the Germans, Miracle of the Marne
Describe Trench Warfare
Wet, muddy areas, disease broke out, watery, cold freezing water, area b/w no mans land (area b/w trenches)
Why did the Germans sink the Lusitania?
Germans said water around British waters were war zones, mail ship, U-20 stalked and shot Lusitania, Lusitania was carrying amnetion Germans said it, but no proof for that
What was American reaction to the skinning of the Lusitania?
American reaction: Wilson tried to calm everyone, U.S. was too proud to fight, American protest, seize German warfare in Atlantic. Driving force for training camps in the U.S.
What was the significance of Verdun?
became a symbol of French determination, city was surrounded by the Germans, battle lasted a year, bloody, losses were insane, the bloodiest battle in human history
What were the British trying to accomplish at the Somme?
breakthrough of the German lines on the Western front, never got through the german lines
What was the purpose of the Battle of Jutland?
break the British blockade in the North Sea, attack the supply conveys, Germans were trapped in port, victory for the British
What was the background of Charles Evans Hughes (1916 Presidential candidate)?
son of a Baptist minister, party favorite, condemn nation, protect interest abroad
What secured victory in 1916?
late returns of California, 49% Wilson, 46% Hughes,
Campaign - "He kept us out of war"
What was the Siegfried Line?
build behind german front lines, fortifications, underground, city
Why did the French Army Mutiny in 1917?
refused to follow orders, just said were done compromised instrument, french army, french carried the fighting
What was the purpose of the Battle of Passchendaele? What new war machine made a major impact at Cambrai?
PURPOSE: key to recapturing Flenders, advancing to the Dutch borders, they could turn to German lines
New War Machine: British Tank: "landship"
What did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk do?
-The treaty ended Russian participation in World War I, ended war on eastern front, gave more power to germany
What happened at Black Tom Island?
ammunition shipping station near Jersey city, destroyed by German sabators, permanently damaged statue of liberty, EXPLOSION, german sabotage on U.S. soil
How did the Zimmerman Telegram push the US closer to war?
Germans wanted to ally with Mexico, would provide support to Mexico, trying to spread war to financial fight for democracy, mexico, alliance, publication, response
What was unrestricted Submarine warfare?
German army, u-boats would sink any ships that would go to the allies, neutral ships from U.S. were under a threat from Germans
What was the AEF?
American Expeditionary Forces - first real intervention in Europe, biggest force since Civil War
Who was Leonard Wood? John J. Pershing?
Leonard Wood - U.S. army general during WWI, army chief of staff, started ROTC
John Pershing - west point graduate, brigadier general (one star) commanded U.S. army going into Europe
How prepared was the US to put troops on the front lines in Europe?
did not impress anyone, did not like training with British, had to learn a lot
What was the US contribution to the war at sea?
secured Atlantic from German U-boats, provided ships to the main British service fleet
What was the purpose of the massive, all-out German offensives on the Western Front in 1918?
Germany must WIN, must end war before the U.S.
What happened at Seicheprey?
Seichepey: trying to stop the British supply lines, German army was soon faced with supply problems and casualties, weakened the reputation of U.S. army, Germans staged raid, embarassing to the U.S. questioned the abilities of U.S. offices
What was the purpose of the US attack on Catigny?
been captured by Germans, U.S. troops impressed Germans and allies
What was important about Belleau Wood and Chateau-Thierry (2nd Battle of the Marne)?
Importance: U.S. 2nd division, U.S. Maine corpes, AMrine bregade assaulted Belleau Wood, U.S. won, point to hold Germans, psychological victory, devil dogs actions of 2nd division saved Paris
Chateau-Thierry - Paris threatened, U.S. 3rd division, stoof fast, helped the French to stop the Germans "rock of the Maine" 3rd division
What did the AEF do at Soissons?
German army lost the initiative, 1st division had good gains, support 2nd and 1st divisions formed the xx corps of the 5th French army attacked section of German lines, collapse lines, restabilize front German army spent force, last offensive
Who was the father of the AEF Tank Corps?
Capt. George S. Patton, Jr.
Describe the AEF's actions at St. Mihiel.
The fighting lasted until Sept 16 (5 days); Grand Offensive vulnerable at the flanks, St. Mihiel proved the Americans could handle a large operations; Cannonade began; Lt. Colonel Patton and Brig. General Douglas MacArthur (both with IV Corps) met in the field (Farrago)
What was the Hundred Days Campaign?
the United States final role in the last allied push in the War, 2nd battle of Somme
What was the role of the AEF in the Meuse-Argonne offensive?
- to get through the German lines
- 600,000 troops attack at Sedan and take German suuply, largest military effort in the U.S. history so far, Patton in command of tanks, on German batallion captured by York Germans pulled out of Argo Forest massive allied the 2nd push U.S. army created
What happened the German and Austro-Hungarian empires?
Germany - fell apart, socialism, Kiel Mutiny, Wilhelm II, Republic, loss faith
Austria-Hungary- Franz- Joseph and Karl
- Ethnic revolts
- Austrian and Hungarian republics
Why were American troops sent to Russia (Archangel & Siberia)?
Archangel - to stop the spread of Bolsheviks, help British
Siberia - Vladivostok, Units involved withdrawal to stop Bolsheviks, "polar bears" to help allied contigent, Wilson was afraid Japanese would capture parts of Siberia
What were the Fourteen Points?
-Wilson's terms for ending the war and future wars
- self determination for all nations, colonized nations decide their futures, freedom of the seas, reconstruction of European community, present peace of the world
What were the Terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
huge losses for germany
1) All German colonies surrendered to the League of Nations.
2) Huge loses of land - for example Alsager -Lorraine to France or parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland.
3) Lack of control of parts of Germany. Foe example the coalfields of the Saar are put under French control. Also the Rhineland was demilitarised.
4) German has to pay reparations of £6,600 million..
5) Germany and Austria were forbidden from uniting.
6) Germany's army was limited to 100,000 men with no conscription.
7) No aircraft or submarines. The German navy was limited to 6 battleships
What was the League of Nations? Who was its chief opponent in the US?
Treaty's finest accomplishment progressive ideals, join the league of nations, been crafted by the "hand of God" speaking tour
Its chief opponent - Senator Henry Cabot Lodge could order the U.S. to send armies everywhere and sort things out
Who might have been president during Wilson's illness?
Edith Galt Wilson
What was Wilson's contribution to US Foreign Policy?
commitment to high ideas, shaped future U.S. commitment to foreign policy, morality and idealism in providing freedom across the world, spread liberty and democracy, Irag, Afghanistan, Vietnam unsuccessful Wilsonian legacy in foreign policy to this day
What was the effect of the 18th Amendment? What was the Volstead Act?
18th Amendment - prohibition of alcohol, ban on liquor, no sale or production of liquor
Volstead Act - outlawed intoxicated liquor, was vetoed, became a law bc it was overriden by Congress, was seen as "organized crime stimulus bill"
- provide enforcement for the Eighteenth Amendment, prohibiting the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
What was the effect of the 19th Amendment? Who formed the National Women's Party? Who was Alice Paul?
19th Amendment - wommen's suffrage, women can vote
Who formed the National Women's Party - college education activists
Alice Paul - led the party, had a college degree, quaker from NJ
Who was W.E.B. Dubois? What was his role in the Niagara Movement? The NAACP? Who was Marcus Garvey?
W.E.B. Dubois - leader of civil right movement in 1920, first African American to earn a PhD, press for eqaul rights
Niagara Movement - founder of the movement WEB, creating a new activist campaign, roll-over abolitionism
NAACP role - founder of NAACP, had some court victories, progressive er saw no improvement
Marcus Garvey - started the United Negro Imrpovement Association, to restore African American pride, founded Black Star Line
What was the situation of Mexican-Americans in the 1920s?
1 million (10% of Mexican population) immigrated, relaxation of immigration laws, barriors "mexican neighborhood" still discriminated against, if you're not A.A. you're white
What was the Red Scare? What actions did the government take to address it?
Red Scare - short political paranoia, Russian style Revolution in the U.S., unemployment gov. strikes, fear that it was part of global communist conspiracy
Actions: 20 mail bombs were sent to national figures, Palmer suspected that immigrants planned smth, Espionage Act of 1917, Sedition Act comes in power
What were the consequences of the Red Scare?
Palmer Raids, Espionage Act, Sedition Act, Radical division, Wall street Bombing, Saco and Vanzetti Trial (executed) Demonstration strikes across the world, belief, serious blow to labor unions
How did Warren G. Harding become the Republican nominee in 1920?
Senator from Ohio, 4th place, Wood did not have enough delegates to come, Lodge did a deadlock and a candidate was presented. Harry Daugherty convinced everyone he was "the guy"
What actions did Harding take regarding the League of Nations? World War I?
League of Nations: would not support joining the league, took some steps to ensure peace
WWI: technically still at war, Harding ended the war, joint Resolution reviewed by Harding
What efforts did the Harding Administration take to limit armaments?
- four power pact (Britain, U.S. France, Japan) and nine power pact
- limit naval arms, Washington Conference with a limitation of armaments, Europian countries agreed to reduce the amounts of weapons
What former president became Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court?
William Howard Taft
What were the major scandals that occurred during the Harding Administration?
1) Veterand Bureau
2) Justice Department
3) Teapot Dome Scandal (Navy and Interior Depts)
How did Calvin Coolidge become president?
Harding died in office, was vice president became president
What did Coolidge do for World War I veterans?
Veterans Bonus Act of 1924 - awarded WW1 veterans insurance payouts
What was Coolidge's attitude toward business? Who were the important members of Coolidge's economic team?
- economy flourished with Coolidge, wanted to promote economic growth regulation was a light touch
Economic team: Andrew Mellon and Hoover, Coolidge Prosperity
How did Prohibition promote organized crime?
Physicians lobbied for repeal of the act, Doctors made 40 mill dollars on whiskey prescription, Volstead Act, cheap alcohol, smuggling, gave criminals local gov. positions, bribed officials
What three parties nominated presidential candidates in 1924? What were their platforms?
Platform: tax reduction, protectice tarriff, more federal jobs, under civil service, banning child labor
Platform: KKK arguments, lower tarriff, graduated income tax, campaign finance reform, disaims.
3) Progressive Party
What was the Kellogg-Briand Pact?
outlawed war, an agreement between nations not to use war to settle their differences, 15 countries signed agreed to renouce was as a nears of setting international disputes, U.S. Britaion, Germany, Italy, Japan, 37 more countries joined later
What were the major issues of the Election of 1928?
Prohibition, lower national debt, lower taxes, keep coolidge economy, eforcement prohibition, Coolidge prosperity and Smith's religion
What were the findings of the commission examining law enforcement and prohibition?
it revealed corruption in many cities' criminal justice systems and documented instances of BRIBERY, ENTRAPMENT, coercion of witnesses, fabrication of evidence, and illegal WIRETAPPING. The report on Lawlessness in Law Enforcement led to police reform efforts in many municipalities.
How did Al Capone become head of the Chicago mob?
In his early twenties, he moved to Chicago and became a bodyguard and trusted factotum for Johnny Torrio, head of a criminal syndicate that illegally supplied alcohol—the forerunner of the Outfit—and was politically protected through the Unione Siciliana.
Torrio soon succeeded to full leadership of the gang with the violent demise of Big Jim Colosimo, and Capone gained experience and expertise as his strong right arm. In 1925, Capone became boss when Torrio, seriously wounded in an assassination attempt, surrendered control and retired to Brooklyn.
By what means did the federal gov. finally bring Capone to justice?
Capone was never indicted for his racketeering but was finally brought to justice for income-tax evasion in 1931.
What is the Dow Jones Industrial Average?
an average of stock prices of major industries
stock market index that tracks 30 large, publicly-owned blue-chip companies trading on the New York Stock Exchange and the NASDAQ.
Describe the Stock Market Crash of 1929. Did it cause the Depression?
The stock market crash of 1929 was a collapse of stock prices that began on Oct. 24, 1929. The Dow Jones Industrial Average had dropped 24.8%, marking one of the worst declines in U.S. history. Prices fell , Black Tuesday, panic
It did not cause the Depression, it was a symptom
How many people were unemployed during the Great Depression?
4 million people, by 1933 - 12 million, 25% unemployed
What was the Dust Bowl? What caused it?
Ecological disatser, dust storms, farm machinery killed grass, wind storms, The massive dust storms caused farmers to lose their livelihoods and their homes. Deflation from the Depression aggravated the plight of Dust Bowl farmers
What was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation?
The Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) was an independent agency of the U.S. government, chartered during the administration of Herbert Hoover in 1932. The agency advanced $2 billion in loans to state and local governments and to banks, railroads, farm mortgage associations, and other businesses, funding, for example, the construction of the original Hayden Planetarium. The RFC also had a division that would give the states loans for emergency relief needs. The RFC was bogged down in bureaucracy and failed to disburse many of its funds. It failed to stem the tide of mass unemployment of the Great Depression. The failure of the RFC helped to lead to the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. President Roosevelt merged the RFC, Board of Economic Warfare (BEW), and the Lend-Lease Office together under the direction of Leo Crowley, former head of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which was one of the landmarks of the New Deal.
What was the purpose of the Federal Home Loan Bank?
is a network of local banks that provide cash to other banks in order to keep money flowing to consumers and businesses
What were the "Hoover" symbols of the Depression?
- Hoover Flags (empty pockets)
- Hoover Hogs
- Hoover Dust (cheap tobacco)
- Hoover Wagon
- Hoover Blankets
What was the Bonus Army? Who "fought" it in Washington, DC?
Bonus Army - 1st mill. soldiers marched on Washington for their "bonus" the Bonus Bill was to be payed
Who fought - the U.S. army, BIG 3 McArthur, Eisenhower, Patton
In 1932, what did the Republican and Democratic platforms cite as the reason for the Depression?
Republicans - blamed on events in Europe
Democrats - blamed the Republicans for depression
Why was Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) in a wheelchair?
Very few people knew he could not walk, media posted picture, he could generally walk but had to have a cane
Who was the first woman in a president's cabinet? How long did she serve?
France Perkins - logest term in U.S. history?
Describe the banking industry in 1933? What was done to save it?
Banking industry was about to collapse, went broke, deposits were in stock markets, New Deal plan covered this issue also "Bank Holiday" and Emergency Banking Act markets
What were the Fireside Chats? How were they an example of soft power?
- FDR explained the New Deal to the public through the radio, to promote his policies, soft power bc he was building trust and confidence in his new policies.
What did the Glass-Steagall Act do?
separated commercial banking from investment banking
prohibited commercial banks from purchasing bonds and stocks, separated investment banks/ personal/business banks
What is the FDIC?
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)-this act insured bank deposits up to $5, 000.
What was the 100 Days? Why were they extraordinary?
- President is judged by his first 100 days of work in office, the President never had such power
- first hundred days (alternatively written first 100 days) often refers to the beginning of a leading politician's term in office, and may refer to: First 100 days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency
What was the Civilian Conservation Corps?
a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal, provided food and shelter
What was the 1st Agricultural Adjustment Act?
reduce crops and crop surplasses, raise income for farmers
Among the law's goals were limiting crop production, reducing stock numbers, and refinancing mortgages with terms more favorable to struggling farmers
What was the purpose of the Tennessee Valley Authority?
Boost the economy of Tennessee River Valley, harness the river in series of dams, 41,000 square miles, Dams soil conservation, fertilized production, oversee the construction of dams to control flooding, improve navigation, and create cheap electric power in the Tennessee Valley basin.
What was the Civil Works Administration?
something more was needed, FERA created, employed 4 mill people, the cost of it skyrockets, "Make-work" program, workers depend on gov. jobs, Hired workers directly to construct roads, schools, playgrounds, and parks
Why was the National Industrial Recovery Act important to the New Deal?
model of gov. business
What was the purpose for the Public Works Administration? National Recovery Administration?
PWA - It built large-scale public works such as dams, bridges, hospitals, and schools. Its goals were to spend $3.3 billion in the first year, and $6 billion in all, to provide employment, stabilize purchasing power, and help revive the economy
NRA - revitalize business in the U.S. so businesses are able to cooperate, improve working conditions, reduce work week, and child labor,
The goal of the administration was to eliminate "cut throat competition" by bringing industry, labor, and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices.
What did the Civil Works Administration do?
hired workers directly, including thousands of women, to build or improve airports, roads, and playgrounds
was a short-lived job creation program established by the New Deal during the Great Depression in the United States to rapidly create mostly manual-labor jobs for millions of unemployed workers.
What is the purpose of the Securities and Exchange Commission?
to regulate the equity of capital markets, prevent stock market crash, Josepj P Kennedy in charge
Protect investors. Maintain fair, orderly, and efficient markets. Facilitate capital formation.
What agencies did the National Housing Act create? What did they do?
1) Federal Housing Admin (FDA) - protect home owners from foreclosure, insured millions of long term mortgages that were issued by private banks, got housing industry on its feet
How did Supreme Court decisions affect the New Deal?
The NRA was struck by Supreme Court, said that laws vioaloted the Constitution, National Recover Act - unconstituitional, threaten the New Deal program, AAA was also struck down unconsitutional
Describe the political positions of Huey Long
criticized New Deal for it being too conservative, was Louisiana's legendary populist Governor, U.S. Senator and favorite son. Poised to run for president on his "Share Our Wealth" platform, Long was assassinated in 1935 at the age of 42.
Huey Long was known as "the Kingfish", a take-charge problem solver who delivered immediate relief to the suffering and powerless. As Governor, he used strong-arm tactics to break political gridlock and cut red tape. He took Washington by storm as the most outspoken U.S. Senator.
Who was Father Charles Coughlin?
The radio priest was a conservative critic of the new deal. He felt that FDR had gone too far
What crimes were the Public enemies most commonly pursued for
gangship, bank robberies
Who were the most famous Public Enemies in 1933-1934?
was introduced by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Reaching that infamous honor in 1934 were John Dillinger, Pretty Boy Floyd and Baby Face Nelson.
What FBI agent helped bring most of these Public Enemies down?
Why was a Second New Deal initiated?
1st New Deal failed to bring country out of Depression, try again, focus on economic security, whereas 1st New Deal focused on economic recovery
What was the purpose of the Works Progress Administration?
found employment for wide variety of workers, changed physical structure of U.S., part of 2nd New Deal, employed while collar workers
What was the Rural Electrification Administration?
REA- provided loans for electrical cooperatives to supply power in rural areas, funds to extend electricity to rural areas, 80% of farms lacked electrical power, people started purhcasing electronic goods
What was the Wagner Act? The National Labor Relations Board?
Wagner Act - established labors light manifacturing to bargain from their choosing, leave the union organizers alone, bargain in good faith, people paid more -> buy more, guarantees the right of workers to organize and outlines the legal framework for labor unions and management relations. In addition to protecting workers, the act provides a framework for collective bargaining.
The National Labor Relations Board - union elections, disputes, intra-union disputes, had the authority to supervise elections in union representatives, in change of settling disputes between unions, keep peace within labor movement
What was the purpose of the Social Security Act?
Old-age insurance; unemployment Compensation; dependent children / disabled, retirement income for people over 65
What was the Union Party?
The Union Party was a short-lived political party in the United States, formed in 1936 by a coalition of radio priests; Father Charles Coughlin, old-age pension advocate Francis Townsend, and Gerald L. K. Smith, who had taken control of Huey Long's Share Our Wealth (SOW) movement after Long's assassination in 1935.
What was odd about the Literary Digest Poll?
a phone conducted poll, poll said Landon is going to win, most people who owned telephones would favor Landon rather than FDR's New Deal, poorly conducted poll
How did the New Deal affect Indians?
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, John Collier tried to bring benefits to Native Americans, encouraged the renewal of Indian American cultural practices, tribal gov. courts of Indian Affairs, living conditions didn't really improve
Who effect did the New Deal have on working women?
more women in gov. than any before, most new deal policies focused on men, married women can't get a job, gender equality was not high
What was the Black Cabinet?
the 1st cabinet made up of African Americans. FDR asked for guidance from people like Robert c Weaver and Mary McLeod Bethune. This did not lead to equal rights, but at least improved a little.
How did the New Deal impact the condition of Mexican-Americans in the Western US?
400,000 had to return home, returning to Mexico, Mexican migrants remained working under the conditions of California Farm Belt
Why did FDR attempt to 'pack' the Supreme Court? What was his method? Did it work?
Some judges were too old, age issues, afraid it will strike social security act and wagner act, he handpicked justices which did not really help and created sus
What caused the Roosevelt Recession?
workers laid off, 4 mill more workers lost jobs, spending cuts,
If fiscal retrenchment and higher reserve requirements cannot fully explain the recession, then what can? There is no doubt that there was a severe monetary shock.
How did the Second New Deal end?
- court fights ended, Congress refused to pass FDR's programs, U.S. Housing Act and First Labor Stabdards Bill had a hard time getting through Congress, economic conditions in the South still not as good as North
What was the United States #1 economic problem in the late 1930's?
The Great Depession
Did the New Deal changed the belief about government having a important role in the well-being of its citizens?
The New Deal redefined the role of the government, convincing the majority of ordinary Americans that the government not only could but should intervene in the economy as well as protect and provide direct support for American citizens.
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