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75 terms

Final Exam

STUDY
PLAY
efficiency
the percentage of input work converted to output work
joule
the unit of work
mechanical advantage
the number of times the input work is multiplied by the machine
newton
the unit of force
work
a force exerted on an object that moves it in the same direction
friction
a force between objects
gear
two or more wheels linked together by interlocking teeth
inclined plane
a slanted plane
input force
the force applied by the user
output force
the force applied by the machine
lever
a rigid object that moves around a fixed point
pulley
a grooved wheel in combination with a rope or chain
screw
an inclined plane wrapped around a central cylinder
wedge
an inclined plane that moves
wheel and axle
two circular objects that rotate about a common axis
astronomical unit
the average distance between Earth and the sun
lunar eclipse
occurs when the moon passes through Earth's shadow
revolution
Earth's movement that relates to seasons
rotation
Earth's movement that causes day and night
solar eclipse
occurs when the moon moves in a line directly between Earth and the sun
density
the amount of matter per unit volume
matter
anything that takes up space and has volume
precession
a slow motion of Earth's axis
retrograde
the motion of planets when they appear to move eastward among the stars, then stop and reverse direction
volume
the amount of space matter takes up
ellipse
an oval
geocentric
earth-centered
heliocentric
sun-centered
waning
decreasing in size
waxing
increasing in size
asteroid
small irregularly shaped bodies
coma
the glowing head of a comet
comet
rocky, metallic pieces held togetherby frozen gases
nebula
a cloud of dust and gas
planetesimal
early planets
asteroid belt
located between Mars and Jupiter
Kuiper belt
located beyond Neptune
meteor
shooting stars
meteorite
a small particle that reaches Earth's surface
meteoroid
interplanetary debris
absorption spectrum
produced by passing light through a cool gas
continous spectrum
produced by incandescent lights
Doppler effect
an apparent change in frequency
electromagnetic spectrum
electromagnetic radiation
emission spectrum
a series of bright lines
aurora
solar radiation interacting with Earth's magnetic field
solar flare
a sudden and tremendous eruption in the solar surface that extends far outwards
solar wind
streams of protons and electrons ejected at high speed from the solar corona
nuclear fusion
the combining of nuclei
photon
a small packet of energy
absolute magnitude
the actual brightness of a star
apparent magnitude
the brightness of a star as viewed from Earth
light-year
the distance light travels in one year
nova
a star that explosively increases in brightness
pulsar
a source of regular radio pulses
big bang
the scientific theory explaining the origin of the universe
binary star
two stars revolving around a common center of mass
black hole
a massive star that has collapsed to such great density that its gravity prevents the escape of everything, including light
sunspot
a relatively dool area on the sun's surface
protostar
a collapsing cloud of gas and dust destined to become a star
neutron star
a star of extremely high density
red giant
a large, cool, bright star
supergiant
a very large, very bright, but relatively cool star
supernova
an exploding star that increases in brightness many thousands of times
white dwarf
a star that has exhausted most of its nuclear fuel, has collapsed to a very small size, and is believed to be near its final stage
compression
a squeezing force
convection
the circular rising of warmer fluids and sinking of cooler fluids
shearing
a sliding force
subduction
when one piece of crust is pushed below another
tension
a stretching force
convergent boundary
a fault line where two pieces of crust are colliding together
divergent boundary
a fault line where two pieces of crust are separating
transform boundary
a fault line whre two pieces of crust are sliding past each other
trench
found at convergent boundaries
ridge
found at divergent boundaries