25 terms

Essential Math Concepts are a reorganization of the Grade 7 California standards into eight categories. The topics comprise 70% of the CST questions.

absolute value

The distance from a point on the number line to zero, or the value of any number ignoring its sign (The makes the number positive.).

associative property

The property which states that for all real numbers a, b, and c, their sum or product is always the same, regardless of their grouping: (a+b)+c=a+(b+c), (ab)c=a(bc).

base

A side of a polygon or a face of a solid figure by which the figure is measured. A height or altitude intersects the base.

commutative property

The property which states that two or more addends can be added or that two or more factors can be multiplied in any order without changing the sum or product.

difference

The amount by which one value is greater or smaller than another.

distributive property

The property which states that multiplying a sum by a number gives the same result as multiplying each addend by the number and then adding the products: a(b+c)=ab+ac.

evaluate

Find what a math expression equals, often by substituting a value for a variable: 3x7=21 or 8y=?, y=4, 8x4=32.

exponent

The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor: 4 X 4 X 4 = 4 cubed, 4 is the base; 3 is the exponent.

identity property

The property which states that multiplying a number by 1 does not change the number's value: 6 X 1 = 6, 1 x a = a, 3 x 2/2 = 6/2.

increased by

If you increase a value by an amount or number, it becomes bigger by that amount or number.

integer

The set of whole numbers and their opposites: 8, -23, 14/2.

less than

A number to the left of another number on the number line: 6<8. The symbol is also called less than.

more than

A number to the right of another number on the number line. 8>6. The symbol is also called more than.

numerical expression

A mathematical phrase that includes only numbers and operation symbols: 60+25, 42÷7+5.

order of operations

The order in which the multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction are done within an expression when evaluating it.

PEMDAS

In the order of operations, working left to right repeatedly: Parentheses, Exponents; then Multiplication, Division; then Addition, Subtraction.

power

The value of a number represented by a base and an exponent or simply the expression formed by a base and exponent.

product

The result after numbers and/or variables are multiplied: 7x9=63, 9x7y=63y.

quotient

The result after numbers and/or variables are divided: 7÷2=7/2, 8y÷2=4.

simplify

The result of either combining like terms in an expression: 4y+3y+2=7y+2 or using the property of a/a=1 to reduce a fraction so that no common factor exists in both the numerator and denominator: 18/21=6/7.

sum

The result after numbers and/or variables are added: 13+2=15, 3y+34y=37y.

total

Another name for sum. Often used for more than one adden: 8+9+23+17=57.

variable expression

An expression that uses one or more letters to represent one or more numbers: 8y, -2yz+3z.

whole number

The set of natural numbers and 0, {0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

zero property

Adding zero to a number does not change the number's value: 0+7=7, 0+11y=11y.