17 terms

Essential Math Concepts are a reorganization of the Grade 7 California standards into eight categories. The topics comprise 70% of the CST questions.

base

A side of a polygon or a face of a solid figure by which the figure is measured or named.

denominator

The number or term below a fraction bar. In 3/4, 4 is the denominator.

equivalent fractions

Fractions that name the same number. 3/4=6/8.

exponent

The number that indicates how many times the base is used as a factor, 4x4x4, 4 is the base, 3 is the exponent.

fraction/division bar

The line symbol between the numerator (top) and denominator (bottom).

hypotenuse

In a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle (90 degrees).

irrational number

A number that cannot be expressed as a repeating or terminating decimal, p/q.

leg

In a right triangle, either of the two sides that intersect to form the right angle; in an isosceles triangle, one of the two congruent sides.

perfect square

A number that has an integer as its square root: 9, 16, 25.

Pythagorean Theorem

In any right triangle, if a and b are the lengths of the legs and c is the length of the hypotenuse, then a-squared + b-squared = c-squared: 9+16=25.

rational number

Any number that can be expressed as a ratio a/b where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0.

real number

A rational or irrational number.

repeating decimal

A decimal in which one or more digits repeat endlessly: 5.272727 or 5.27 bar.

scientific notation

A method of writing very large or very small numbers by using powers of 10: 120=1.2x10-squared.

simplest form

The result of combining like terms in an expression or removing identical terms from a numerator and denominator: 2y+5y=7y, 12/15=4/5.

standard notation

A number written without exponents: an integer or a decimal fraction.

terminating decimal

A decimal that ends; a decimal for which the division operation results in a remainder of zero: 0.625