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Healthcare in the US
Terms in this set (130)
Has the high cost of healthcare in the U.S. led to more funding for education and other state programs?
NO, this is false
is associated with a reduction in uncompensated care costs in hospitals
Can chiropractors prescribe drugs or perform surgery?
The number of hospitalizations has _____ since 1981
True or False: There is wide variation in the quality of healthcare services across the United States
Why is the closing of hospitals in rural areas particularly problematic?
Increased travel time for patients urgently in need of medical care
True or False: In the long term, the ACA will reduce the need for primary care providers
Has the U.S. malpractice system been successful in any major aspect?
No, it's a failure on all fronts
What was the main argument Ezekiel Emanuel made in the NYT article "Are Hospitals Becoming Obsolete?"
Care is being shifted out of hospitals into cheaper, more effective settings
Based on what three medical problems does Hospital Compare rank the quality of different hospitals?
Acute heart attacks, heart failure, pneumonia
What does the Disproportionate Share Hospital program do?
Provides federal funds to compensate hospitals for caring for the uninsured
Mid-level providers (MPLs) include:
Primary care physicians...
Provide initial diagnoses
Why might hospital care become obsolete according to the NYT article by Ezekiel Emanuel?
The alarming rise of iatrogenic disease
Better alternative settings for care
Which of the following is true about primary caring according to the Kerns and Willis' Harvard Business Review article?
Nurse practitioners and physician assistants could deliver high quality primary care but are not being utilized effectively
According to the article by Kerns and Willis, why do some Americans not have access to primary care?
Many primary care offices are not open in the evenings and on weekends, which are the only times that work for some individuals
Countries whose health systems are oriented more toward primary care achieve:
Higher satisfaction with health services among their populations
In the Gawande article entitled "The Heroism of Incremental Care," which medical problem plagued Bill Haynes for nearly forty years?
Severe chronic migraines
What's false about primary care teams according to the article, "Building Powerful Primary Care Teams?"
The extended care team is responsible for all patients while the core team manages three or four of patients (FALSE)
According to "The Heroism of Incremental Care," what's an advantage of primary care?
Having a primary care doctor increases patient willingness to seek care for severe symptoms
Primary care doctors use an empirical "big picture" approach to solving medical problems rather than a "rule out" strategy
"Twitter Tailwinds" tells stories which highlight...
the upsides of the medical profession
According to the Institute of Medicine, primary care is "the provision of ______, accessible health care services by clinicians who are _____ for addressing a large majority of health care needs..."
The most prominent reason for the decline in the number of procedures performed in hospitals is...
Most of these procedures were shifted to the outpatient setting
Regions with more access to primary care physicians have:
Lower infant mortality
Lower rates of general mortality
Based on the article "Building Powerful Primary Care Teams," having a core team:
allows medical assistants to aid in setting the agenda, documenting history, and arranging follow-ups
The "headwinds/tailwinds asymmetry" refers to
the tendency to focus on barriers and disadvantages
What is the doctors "new dilemma" as articulated by Suzanne Koven?
Determining how to ration limited time among patients
According to The Lancet article, "Prioritizing primary care in the USA":
- The broad definition of primary care includes nurse practitioners, OB/GYNs, psychologists, and social workers
- Hospital systems and physicians are reluctant to adopt models, such as accountable care organizations and patient centered medical homes
According to the article The Doctor's New Dilemma, taking the time to talk to patients can:
Help control blood pressure
Help relieve pain
Help relieve physician burnout
True or False: Typically, tertiary care is highly specialized
Many primary care physicians in the U.S face:
Feeling disillusioned with their careers
In the KHN article by Blau, foreign-born physicians experienced:
Difficulty with re-entry into the U.S.
Scrutiny at work
What are some major problems in primary care as outlined by Lazris, Roth, and Brownlee in Health Affairs?
Lack of Resources
Unfair/inefficient payment schemes
What's true about IMGs, as states by the AMA's webpage on IMG's impact on American medicine?
Almost all IMGs speak a language other than English
The ratio of primary care providers to specialists in the U.S. is _____ whereas in other high-income countries this ratio is _____
True or False: Under U.S. Immigration law, foreign-born doctors are required to practice in a medically undeserved area for three years
Regions with a ______ ratio of population to primary care practitioners are designated as Primary Care Professional Shortage areas
The number of small primary care practices is:
Which of the following describes Bodenheimer & Bauer's vision for the scope of work for primary care physicians in the future?
Primary care doctors will probably focus more on complex patients while nurses and PAs take over other primary care responsibilities
According to Kevin B. O'Reilly in his AMA article, "How IMGs have changed the face of American medicine," how have IMGs benefited the American health system?
Almost two-thirds work in primary care, a specialty that is facing a shortage of physicians
They received their training in a different health system and can use this
Quality of care is ______ among NPs compared to primary care physicians and patient satisfaction is _______ among NPs compared to primary care physicians
The same; the same
Areas with more primary care physicians experience all of the following EXCEPT:
More emergency department visit
The size of the primary care workforce is ______ and the number of nursing practitioners is ______.
International medical graduates make up _____ of the primary care physician workforce
According to Primary Care: Current Problems and Proposed Solutions, which of the following might solve the issue of difficulty with accessing primary care physicians?
Same day scheduling
Residency programs are increasingly training more
Which of the following are major problems in primary care as outlined by Lazris, Roth, and Brownlee in Health Affairs?
Lack of resources
Unfair/inefficient payment schemes
RNs are poised to help fill the gap caused by primary care shortages in
Chronic care management
In the KHN article by Blau, which piece of government legislation enabled international student Garcia Manrique to attend medical school?
The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program (DACA)
Which of the following is a concern expressed by Bodenheimer & Bauer about the increasing role of nurses in primary care?
Training in nursing schools is focused on inpatient care rather than primary care
True or false: The increasing number of NPs and PAs is enough to fill the gap caused by the decreasing number of primary care physicians
In the Health Affairs blog, which of the following do Lazris, Roth, and Brownlee suggest as solutions to the "crisis" in primary care?
Subsidies for primary care training
Direct primary care
According to Primary Care: Current Problems and Proposed Solutions, which of the following might solve the panel size problem for primary care physicians?
Increasing payment to primary care providers to attract more medical graduates into primary care
Task shift primary care duties to other members of the primary care team such as nursing practitioners and physician assistants
The population of older Americans in need of LTSS is projected to...
Basic assistance with ADLs is provided mainly by...
In the delivery of long-term care, customized interventions are carried out according to...
A plan of care
True or False: We are facing a shortage of LTSS direct care workers
Who falls into the LTSS coverage gap?
Older Americans who don't qualify for Medicaid and have moderate to severe levels of disability
True or False: In a skilled nursing facility, Medicare covers only short-term rehabilitation or convalescence
What's NOT a recommendation made by Thomas and Applebaum for improving LTSS?
Increasing wages and benefits for geriatricians
A long-term care facility must be certified in order to...
receive payment for Medicare and/or Medicaid patients
Hospital-based transitional care units must be certified as
an SNF (Skilled nursing facility)
What is the main goal of long-term care?
Maintain function and prevent further decline
What percentage of older Americans obtain long-term care insurance?
Which is the largest payer for home health services?
Which of the following demonstrates the movement in nursing homes, referred to as "culture change"?
the environment promotes physical and psychological well-being
Which group contributes the most to the provision of long-term care?
Informal caregivers (family/friends)
The Dartmouth Atlas brief data shows that overall Medicare hospital use in the last six months of life has _____ while Medicare spending at the end of life has ________
Recent trends in pallative care show that the number of Medicare patients enrolled in hospice have _____ and the number of hospice days per patient has ______
Increased, Also Increased
What is one of the barriers to hospice enrollment?
True or False: Recent trends show decreases in Medicare spending for EOL Care with increasing age
What's not a recommendation IOM made for improving EOL care?
Implementing the use of POLST in all care settings (FALSE)
Those with pallative care experience ______ pain, anxiety, and family exhaustion than those without pallative care at the end of life
What do advance directives accomplish?
They help ensure that patients' goals and preferences for care at the end of life are met
True or False: Patients who focus on disease control rather than pallative care at the end of life live longer
Which of the following is true regarding recent trends in End of Life Care in the U.S?
A. Most people 65+ have not discussed End of Life Care with their physicians
B. Most physicians are not trained to discuss End of Life Care
True or False: Recent trends show decreases in Medicare spending for EOL Care with increasing age?
According to the Gawande article entitled "Quantity and Quality of Life", how do physician deaths compare with the deaths of their patients?
Physicians experience about the same level of institutional care and hospice care as their patients
Palliative care includes:
Management of pain and emotional distress
Family caregiver support
Coordinated care and services
True or False: Hospital-based emergency care is the only treatment to which Americans have a legal right, regardless of their ability to pay
Historically, inpatient care developed ______ outpatient care
What's an example of a typical setting for ambulatory care services?
Sports medicine clinics
How has the ER changed in the past 50 years?
Increased ability to treat a wider range of health problems
A patient with special needs could expect to receive efficient, appropriate, team-approach care from where?
A patient-centered medical home
According to the Kellerman article entitled "The ER, 50 Years and On," what are two reasons why ER use has increased?
Inaccessibility of primary care physicians on weekends, nights, and holidays
Public perception of the ER as a place where one can receive care at all times
One reason women's health centers were created is:
Women seek care more often than men
Convenient care options mainly provide care for:
Which of the following describes recent trends in retail clinic visits?
Retail clinic visits have only increased in major cities
True or False: All ambulatory care is primary care
According to Cassel's JAMA article, which of the following is NOT a concern about retail clinic growth:
Mixed results have been found when looking at the quality of care received at retail clinics
Which is not one of the drivers of growth in convenient care options?
Better quality care in convenient care clinics
According to the U.S. law, nonprofit organizations...
Are tax exempt
After the Obama administration left, government attention to suppressing hospital consolidation...
What is the major concern with increased consolidation among hospitals and health care systems according to Fulton?
Anticompetitive behavior which could lead to increased costs and lower quality care
In the Fulton article, which tool was used to measure market concentration?
Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)
What policy responses could be used to enhance market competition according to Fulton?
Enforce antitrust laws
Reduce barriers to entry
Set provider and health insurer rates
True or False: Smaller practices are becoming less common as more physicians are joining larger physician organizations or hospitals
Which group experienced the most increase in market concentration between 2010 and 2016?
Primary care physicians
True or False: By definition, a public hospital is one that is open to the general public
Inpatient care consists of
Health care delivered in conjunction with an overnight stay in a facility
In the NYT article by Abelson, hospitals were consolidating with
Other hospitals and
Private medical practices
To participate in Medicare and Medicaid, a health care facility must be
ALOS is an indicator of
severity of illness
In the NYT article by Abelson, when HCA merged with its only competitor
Hospital care quality declined
The consolidation of hospitals ________ the cost of hospital care for patients
Which of the following policy responses could be used to enhance market competition according to Fulton?
All of the above (Enforce antitrust laws, Reduce barriers to entry, Set provider and health insurer rates
________ is the tendency to attribute patient's symptoms to their mental illness
What are some key issues with assessing patient capacity according to "Closing the Mortality Gap" by Lisa Rosenbaum?
Physicians usually don't have the time to assess patient capacity
Physicians fear having to coerce their patients who lack capacity
There's no clear objective way to assess patient capacity
What is the most significant reason for the mortality gap between severely mentally ill people and the general population?
In her research, Cindy Lou discovered that __________ was strongly associated with suicidality and mental health diagnoses in college students
Which mental illness did Amanda Lipp suffer from according to the KHN article by Jenny Gold?
In the research article entitled, " Prevalence and Predictors of Mental Health Diagnoses...,"
Transgender students had a higher rate of suicidal ideation than females
True or False: According to "Covid-19 and Mental Health: A Growing Crisis," about 80% of people who took anxiety screens scored in the severe range
According to "Seize the Awkward," what are some signs someone is struggling with their mental health?
Taking more risks than usual
Expressing feelings of hopelessness
Changing sleep or eating habits
According to "Seize the Awkward," you should not...
Dive straight into talking about mental health with a friend
According to "Seize the Awkward," when helping out a friend in need, you should:
Make sure to take care of yourself and set boundaries
Try not to take their comments or behavior personally
What does the mental health parity law accomplish?
The law requires that insurers provide mental health benefits at the same level as any other medical condition
MHA's 2020 analysis found that:
Black/African-American screeners had the highest percent change over time for depression
In the research article entitled "Prevalence and Predictors of Mental Health Diagnoses..." all of the following are true:
Multiracial students were more likely to engage in suicidal ideation than white students
International students had a lower rate of suicidal ideation than domestic students
Transfer students were more likely to engage in suicidal ideation than non-transfers
According to the article from Mental Health America, a greater proportion of the screening population in 2020 was:
Screened for anxiety and bipolar disorder
Correct Answer: None of the above
According to "COVID-19 and Mental Health: A Growing Crisis"?
An increase in Anti-Asian discrimination may have contributed to an increase in Asian or Pacific Islander screenings
Since the beginning of the pandemic, a higher percentage of youth who took the screen scored in the moderate to severe range
Loneliness and isolation were found to be a main contributing factor to mental health concerns
According to the article "The Flow of Money Through the Pharmaceutical Distribution System," approximately how much of money spent on prescription drugs goes to profit?
In his NYT article, "Something Happened to US Drug Costs in the 1990s," Austin Frakt says approximately how much of health spending is on prescription drugs?
In his NYT article, "Something Happened to US Drug Costs in the 1990s," by Frakt, what are some reasons why drug costs rose in the 1990s?
New drugs to treat conditions, such as cancer, rapidly grew with little price control regulations
Public insurance expanded its coverage of prescription drugs?
According to the NYT article, "Something Happened to US Drug Costs in the 1990s," why did prescription drug prices begin to rise again in 2014?
Speciality drugs, such as biologics, entered the market without any real competition
Why do patients sometimes have very high out-of-pocket costs for prescriptions according to "The Flow of Money Through the Pharmaceutical Distribution System" by Sood et al?
Patients pay wholesale prices for drugs before meeting their deductible instead of at the plan's discounted rate
In "The Flow of Money Through the Pharmaceutical Distribution System," the authors claim that drug manufacturers:
Fund copay assistance programs in an attempt to prevent patients from switching to generics
In the WSJ video on insulin pricing, why does health economist Sherry Giled believe insulin prices have risen so rapidly?
How have people attempted to get the necessary but unaffordable insulin, as shown by the WSJ video on insulin pricing?
Buying insulin from those who have extra
According to Sood et al in their article, "The Flow of Money Through the Pharmaceutical Distribution System," what role to pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs) play?
Negotiates with wholesalers about formulary placement for the company's products
Negotiates with pharmacies to set reimbursement rates
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