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Endocrine system assignment
Terms in this set (60)
The __________ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).
Which of these hormones does not stimulate the release of another hormone by its target cells?
Glucagon increases blood glucose concentration and insulin decreases it. This is an example of __________.
The anterior pituitary is __________ the posterior pituitary and has __________ connection to the hypothalamus.
Larger than; no neuronal
The ___________ can be found as part of the epithalamus, near the superior colliculi of the midbrain.
_________ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the __________.
The __________ secrete(s) __________, which promotes Na+ and water retention.
adrenal cortex; aldosterone
Which of the following is the correct abbreviation for the hormone that stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete ACTH?
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the __________.
Which of the following is not a cause of Cushing syndrome?
Hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla
Which of the following enters a target cell's nucleus and acts directly on the genes.
True or false, Both the thymus and the pineal gland shrink after childhood.
Diabetes insipidus is caused by __________.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion.
Which cell in the parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone?
Many hours after a meal, alpha (α) cells in the pancreatic islets secrete _________, which _________ blood glucose
The __________ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia.
What makes a cell responsive to a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
Which of the following is true of the pancreas?
It is located between the deudenum and spleen, just inferior to the stomach
Neither follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This is an example of which principle regarding hormones?
The synergistic effect
Which of the following best describes a hormone?
A chemical messenger transported by the bloodstream that stimulates target cells in another organ often a good distance away.
Which of the following is an increase in the number of receptors making a target cell more sensitive to a hormone?
Which of the following is not an endocrine organ?
Which hormone stimulates glucocorticoid secretion?
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to the polyuria and dehydration associated with diabetes mellitus?
Hyperglycemia → glucose enters renal tubules → glucose transport maximum exceeded → glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid → osmotic diuresis
The hormone called _________ plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness.
Epinephrine is said to have a glucose-sparing effect.
The __________ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness, quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
increase water reabsorption
Thyroid hormone has a calorigenic effect. True or false
Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via _________.
negative feedback inhibition
Which of the following statements about diabetes mellitus is false?
both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of diabetes mellitus?
The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system connects the hypothalamus to the __________.
T4 and T3 are __________ hormones that are mainly transported __________ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
Of the following hormones, which has more target cells in the body than the others?
What is the abbreviation for the hormone also known as vasopressin?
Negative feedback inhibition occurs when __________.
thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary
The hypophysial portal system connects the _________ with the _________.
Anterior pituitary; hypothalamus
Which of the following is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
The infundibulum is a ___________.
projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs
Which of the following effects on a gland can be caused by a tumor?
Hyposecretion and hypersecretion
Which of the following organs has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
Which of the following is not a steroid hormone?
Which of the following is true regarding endocrine glands?
They release their secretions into the blood.
Which of the following is not a hypothalamic hormone?
luteinizing hormone (LH)
Parathyroid hormone promotes which of the following?
The resorption of calcium from bone
Which of the following is true regarding cortisol?
It promotes breakdown of fat and protein.
The posterior pituitary secretes _________.
Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause __________ when it begins in adulthood.
The nervous system reacts to stimuli __________ compared to the endocrine system, adapts __________ compared to the endocrine system, and has __________ effects compared to the endocrine system.
quickly; quickly; specific
Myxedema is characterized by low metabolic rate, sluggishness, and sleepiness. True or false
The __________ is not an endocrine gland, but it has a role in endocrine function.
__________ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas __________ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which of the following is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger?
enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
The _________ secretes growth hormone, which is also known as somatotropin.
Which of the following makes it possible for even a small quantity of hormone to have a strong effect on its target cell?
Circulating hormones are mostly taken up and degraded by the _________ and the __________.
liver and kidneys
The absence of iodine in the diet leads to __________.
As an example of hormonal communication, when osmoreceptors of the __________ detect dehydration, a signal to the posterior pituitary gland causes the release of __________.
Hypothalamus: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
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