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Merchant guild

an association of merchants and workers created to protect their rights to trade and help out member and their families

Craft guilds

an association of skilled workers that set standards for working conditions


a person who learns a skill through a master

Black Death

the plague that was spread throughout Europe in 1347

Thomas Aquinas

was a monk of the Dominican order who wrote Summa Theologiae which summarized medieval Christian thought.

War of the Roses

was a conflict between the York and Lancaster families. It began in 1455 as a result of two families fighting over England's throne. and won by Henry Tudor, of the Lancaster family, in 1485

Great Schism

when the Church was divided into groups in 1054 AD


meaning "rebirth", is the movement following the Middle Ages that centered on revival of learning The Classics


a master painter of the Renaissance who painted the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican's ceiling and helped design the St. Peter's Basillica


was the first European to use movable types to print books and used to make copies of the Bible

Thomas More

was an English humanist who published the piece Utopia which condemned the government as corrupt and conflicts were being caused by private ownership of property


paid pardons from punishment for sin


the belief that at the beginning of time, God decided who would be saved and who wouldn't


was a government ruled by religious leaders who claimed God's authority

scientific method

the method that includes conducting experiment and mathematical calculation to verify the results of experiments

Geocentric theory

Ptolemy's theory that Earth is the center of the universe

heliocentric theory

Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the universe


stated that it was the responsibility of the government to increase wealth


import tax on foreign goods

Triangular trade

trade between Africa, Europe, and the Americas in which Europe traded finished goods from the Americas to Africa for slaves. The slaves were transported through middle passageways to the Americas to work and they gave raw materials to Europe in a continuous cycle

Commercial Revolution

from 1400-1750 when the Europeans made major changes to their economies due to new exploration

Columbian Exchange

the exchange of goods between the Old and New world after the voyages of Christopher Columbus

Peter the Great

was a ruler that was interested in westernizing Russia

Maria Theresa

the daughter of Holy Roman Empire Charles VI who during the death of her father was restricted from her inheritance of Austria and other Habsburg lands.

Long Parliament

the English Parliament that was elected in 1640 and assembled on and off for 20 years

Rump Parliament

parliament controlled by Oliver Cromwell that proclaimed England as a republic

Petition of Right

a petition that stated four ancient liberties to Parliament by Charles I to

Constitutional monarchy

government in which the monarch remains head of the state but the king or queen is required to consult Parliament


the belief that truth can be determined by logical thinking

popular sovereignty

the government principle based on laws and government and subject to the will of the people


urban middle class, including merchants, manufacturers, and professionals


daughter of Maria Theresa and also married Louis XVI who was involved in both the politics of Austria and France

universal manhood suffrage

A vote for every male regardless of ownership or no ownership of property

Reign of Terror

National Convention worked to suppress opposition during the French Revolution

scorched-earth policy

tactic first used by Russia to burn or destroy crops and anything else of value to an invading army

Napoleonic Code

system of French law under the direction of Napoleon Bonaparte


compensation to a nation for the damage that was inflicted on it


extremists who not only oppose change and want to undo certain changes

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