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38 terms

Mrs. Allen's Western Civilization Final Exam Review

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Merchant guild
an association of merchants and workers created to protect their rights to trade and help out member and their families
Craft guilds
an association of skilled workers that set standards for working conditions
Apprentice
a person who learns a skill through a master
Black Death
the plague that was spread throughout Europe in 1347
Thomas Aquinas
was a monk of the Dominican order who wrote Summa Theologiae which summarized medieval Christian thought.
War of the Roses
was a conflict between the York and Lancaster families. It began in 1455 as a result of two families fighting over England's throne. and won by Henry Tudor, of the Lancaster family, in 1485
Great Schism
when the Church was divided into groups in 1054 AD
Renaissance
meaning "rebirth", is the movement following the Middle Ages that centered on revival of learning The Classics
Michelangelo
a master painter of the Renaissance who painted the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican's ceiling and helped design the St. Peter's Basillica
Gutenburg
was the first European to use movable types to print books and used to make copies of the Bible
Thomas More
was an English humanist who published the piece Utopia which condemned the government as corrupt and conflicts were being caused by private ownership of property
Indulgences
paid pardons from punishment for sin
predestination
the belief that at the beginning of time, God decided who would be saved and who wouldn't
theocracy
was a government ruled by religious leaders who claimed God's authority
scientific method
the method that includes conducting experiment and mathematical calculation to verify the results of experiments
Geocentric theory
Ptolemy's theory that Earth is the center of the universe
heliocentric theory
Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the universe
mercantilism
stated that it was the responsibility of the government to increase wealth
tariffs
import tax on foreign goods
Triangular trade
trade between Africa, Europe, and the Americas in which Europe traded finished goods from the Americas to Africa for slaves. The slaves were transported through middle passageways to the Americas to work and they gave raw materials to Europe in a continuous cycle
Commercial Revolution
from 1400-1750 when the Europeans made major changes to their economies due to new exploration
Columbian Exchange
the exchange of goods between the Old and New world after the voyages of Christopher Columbus
Peter the Great
was a ruler that was interested in westernizing Russia
Maria Theresa
the daughter of Holy Roman Empire Charles VI who during the death of her father was restricted from her inheritance of Austria and other Habsburg lands.
Long Parliament
the English Parliament that was elected in 1640 and assembled on and off for 20 years
Rump Parliament
parliament controlled by Oliver Cromwell that proclaimed England as a republic
Petition of Right
a petition that stated four ancient liberties to Parliament by Charles I to
Constitutional monarchy
government in which the monarch remains head of the state but the king or queen is required to consult Parliament
rationalism
the belief that truth can be determined by logical thinking
popular sovereignty
the government principle based on laws and government and subject to the will of the people
Bourgeoisie
urban middle class, including merchants, manufacturers, and professionals
Marie-Antoinette
daughter of Maria Theresa and also married Louis XVI who was involved in both the politics of Austria and France
universal manhood suffrage
A vote for every male regardless of ownership or no ownership of property
Reign of Terror
National Convention worked to suppress opposition during the French Revolution
scorched-earth policy
tactic first used by Russia to burn or destroy crops and anything else of value to an invading army
Napoleonic Code
system of French law under the direction of Napoleon Bonaparte
indemnity
compensation to a nation for the damage that was inflicted on it
Reactionaries
extremists who not only oppose change and want to undo certain changes