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Radiographic Science and Patient Care - Chapter 20.
Terms in this set (53)
Chemical substance that produce a biological response
Science of origin, nature, effects and uses of drugs
The study of contrast agents, their administration, and possible reactions fall under the category of ______,
Registered professional with a doctorate degree in pharmacology licensed to prepare and dispense drugs
Helps licensed pharmacist dispense prescription, medication to customers or health professionals.
Physician's Desk Reference:
yearly manual of all currently available drugs and their information.
3. Legal classification.
it identifies chemical structure (2-4-isobutylphenyl propanoic acid);
name given to the drug name given to the drug when becomes commercially available (Ibuprofen);
by a company: brand name (temporary right)
have similar chemical actions assedative:
Antiinflammatories: fight inflammation;
2. Non-prescription drugs "over the counter" (
can be purchased w/o a physician order
(some OTC drugs have age restrictions);
Includes homeopathic drugs.
1. require an
-nurse practitioner (limited);
-a licensed pharmacist.
vitamins, supplements and herbal remedies:
not legally classified as drugs
- not regulated by the FDA.
9. transdermal patch.
Granulated drug compressed into a hard disc;
Scored tablets may be broken into halves or quarters (non-scored tablets should not be split or broken);
Do not chew but swallow intact (unless "chewable");
Enteric coated tablets are coated to prevent interaction from stomach acids;
May be coated with a polymer to produce slow, uniform absorption: extended-release, controlled-release, or sustained-release.
Smaller sized tablets with smooth coating
Powdered or liquid drug
in a gelatin shell:
gelatin dissolves in the stomach releasing the drug.
one-piece gelatin capsule almost exclusively used for liquid or oil-based drug.
May be used for local or systemic administration;
Liquid drug is
and deposited on the respiratory mucosa.
Waxy gel form of drug: shaped for insertion into the rectum, vagina or urethra;
May be for local or systemic administration.
in a liquid ("liquid-pill" flavored);
The drug is
in a liquid medium;
Must be shaken before administrated.
Water-resistant patch containing the drug:
The drug is time-released into the bloodstream.
Study of how a drug is absorbed, circulated, metabolized and eliminated by the body.
Movement of the drug from point of administration into the blood stream.
movement of the drug from the blood to various organs and tissues.
Chemical alteration of the drug by the body
elimination of the drug out of the body
Adverse Drug Effect
1. Side effect;
2. Idiosyncratic reaction;
3. Toxic effect.
(1) Side Effect
Result when the drug interacts with tissues other than those targeted (drowsiness, dry mouth, etc.);
The drug interacts with tissues other than intended.
(2) Idiosyncratic Reaction
abnormal response caused by individual genetic differences; Subjective/individual response;
(3) Toxic Effect
Relate to the drug dosage.
Too much of it!
body's immune system is hypersensitive to the drug;
The reaction may be early onset or delayed (range from mild to severe);
≥ 1h; ≤ 2 weeks;
The 1st time the reaction may not present, but may be present at the 2nd exposure to the allergic factor.
Principles of Drug Administration
5 Rights of drug administration:
1. Right drug (
Route of Administration
taken by mouth and swallowed;
absorbed by the GI tract;
longer absorption time;
to the skin
for local or systemic use;
-trans-dermal patches are topical application (absorbed into the bloodstream).
a) Oral (swallowed);
b) Sub-lingual (dissolved under the tongue);
c) Rectal (suppository).
- Subcutaneous (TB test);
- Intravenous (IV);
- Intrathecal or Intraspinal (pain-block).
Common Rx abbreviations
: in the R eye;
: in the L eye;
: in both eyes;
: after meal;
: by mouth;
: as needed;
: before meal;
: twice a day;
: cubic centimeters (cm³);
: at bedtime;
: 3 times a day;
: every day;
: every other day;
: every hour;
: 4 times a day;
Emergency drugs commonly found on a
Arrhythmias: Adenocard, Isoptin, Pronestil, Cardorone, Xylocaine;
Allergic reaction: Benadryl, Decadron;
Shock: Levophed, Intropin;
Shock, hypotension: Dobutrex;
Cardiac arrest, anaphylaxis: Epinephrine;
Metabolic acidosis: sodium bicarbonate.
Varoius size and shape:
2. Cannula or Shaft;
*: diameter of the needle:
25-gauge < 18-gauge.
Who is the person licensed to prepare and dispense drugs?
The name given to a drug manufactured by a specific company is the
a) trade name:
b) chemical name;
c) generic name;
d) non-proprietary name.
A drug that relieves pain without causing a loss of consciousness is an
A patient with an abnormal rhythm of the heart would most likely be receiving which of the following?
b) anticholinergic agents;
c) non-stereoridal anti-inflammatory drugs;
An agent that blocks the action of acetylcholine in the parasympathetic nervous system;
aka: cholinergic blocking agents, antispasmodics, and parasympatholytic agents (Atropine).
What class of drug is
In case of emergency, a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (
) would most likely receive which of the following?
Drugs placed under the tongue are said to be administrated
Which of the following statements expresses the correct relation between lumen diameter and gauge number?
a) as diameter increases, the gauge number increases;
b) as the diameter increases, the gauge number decreases;
as the diameter decreases, the gauge number increases
d) as the diameter increases, the gauge number stays the same.
needles are generally used for
3. intravenous injection.
1. & 2.
A severe life-threatening response to a drug is called
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