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1010 Final Exam (study guide)
Terms in this set (82)
The use of x-rays to create a medical image on patients is referred to as:
Particular care must be taken when using radiation for medical imaging. This is the result of radiation's ability to create __________ in human tissue and possible biochemical changes.
In the diagnosis of patient disease states, physicians can select from an array of medical diagnostic modalities. A few of these involve the use of ionizing energy to create a medical image. If a physician is concerned about the use of ionizing radiation, he or she may choose to order any of the following diagnostic modalities EXCEPT:
The Greek physician Hippocrates is regarded as the father of Western medicine. All of the following choices represent his medical beliefs EXCEPT the:
important medical value of sorcery and witchcraft
Throughout the history of medicine, remarkable achievements have been recorded. These events have led to our current understanding of the human organism and disease. As this research continues, much of it will most likely focus on:
human genes and genetic engineering
Wilhelm C. Roentgen's discovery of "the x-ray" is regarded as one of medicine's most significant achievements. Although his discovery was accidental, his early research was so thorough that no significant findings have been added to his original theories. This in itself is a true tribute to the brilliance of Roentgen as a scientist. One of the most famous early images he created was an x-ray image of his:
All of the following are true of the diagnostic procedure of mammography EXCEPT:
the procedures may be preformed using a general radiography machine
A valuable x-ray procedure used to diagnose a myocardial infarction would be:
In order to study the blood vessels of the brain, kidneys, liver, and other organs, contrast material is administered into these vessels by using:
Radiologic sciences continues to be one of the most exciting professions in medicine. An imaging modality that uses no ionizing radiation and the energy of radio waves and magnetic fields is:
A physician who specializes in the interpretation of medical images is known as a:
A class of health care workers who specialize in carrying out treatments designed to improve a patient's health condition and quality of life and who likely possess a 2- or 4-year degree are known as:
The health occupation that deals with the management of patient medical records and medical coding is:
health information services
All of the following are typical members of the radiology team EXCEPT:
The medical imaging specialty of _______ uses radiopharmaceuticals and gamma radiation in the production of medical images for patient diagnosis.
The current medical standard for measuring bone health with a high degree of accuracy is
DEXA studies of the hip and lower spine
Many medical professions have developed "Practice Standards" to ensure optimum performance of their members. The radiography "Practice Standards" are developed and maintained by the:
The process whereby an organization seeks recognition from its peer groups through demonstrated compliance with developed standards is termed:
Professional certification of medical imaging practitioners, such as radiographers, is offered by the American:
registry of radiologic technologists
There are many organizations involved with medical imaging that make up this great profession. A common goal of all of these organizations is to
-ensure the highest quality of care within the profession
-improve the standard of care within medical imaging
A radiographer looking to relocate to another state for similar employment is advised to check into that State's __________ requirements to ensure qualified employability.
The organization that sponsors an international meeting in Chicago, Illinois each year in late November is the:
Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
The oldest radiologic society in the medical imaging profession is the:
american roentgen ray society
Accredited programs in radiologic technology are recognized by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT). Programs seeking this recognition necessarily must comply with the JRCERT:
standards or essentials
The organization that is principally responsible for the general welfare of the profession of radiologic technology, through its efforts in continuing education, practice standards, and socioeconomics is the:
An example of a stress buffer would be:
exercising with friends for 45 minutes the day before a big test.
As you prepare for an important clinical examination on trauma radiography, a casual friend stops by unexpectedly to tell you she thinks she is about to lose her job. It's clear she wants to talk to someone, and from your friend's perspective you appear to have some time to talk. How would you best handle this situation?
Politely tell your friend that you would love to talk after you have finished studying, if time permits.
As you are driving to your clinical site for the day's activities, you encounter an unexpected construction zone that will most likely make you late. You have taken this reliable route many times before and plan your driving time precisely. You have never been late before and you feel that your clinical instructor will dismiss you from the program. In this particular case, an effective way to deal with this new stressor would be to:
call your clinical instructor and provide an estimate as to your delay
Critical thinking skills are necessary for the competent medical imaging professional. Various organizations within the radiologic sciences provide guidance and documentation of these traits. As an example, the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) publishes ______________ that help define specific professional expectations and responsibilities.
Based upon the electromagnetic spectrum, ___________ indicates a higher energy radiation such as cosmic rays:
Ionization occurs with:
2. sound waves
3. nuclear energy
1 and 3 only
___________________ collaborated with Rontgen in the early development of the xray tube
A registered computed tomography technologist's credentials are:
The discovery of x-rays occurred in what year?
As students gain competency in medical imaging procedures, three phases in the clinical setting are planned by clinical faculty. These three phases in the correct learning sequence are:
observation, assistance, preformance
As a radiography student you will be expected to demonstrate clinical competency in various procedures as part of your clinical rotations. The required number of mandatory competencies is currently:
Student learning that occurs in a classroom setting is referred to as _____ learning.
Owing to the changing practices of medicine, many radiologic procedures that were commonplace many years ago are now performed in smaller numbers. When such is the case, students may perform select competencies in a:
As a student radiographer, you have received a requisition to perform a procedure that requires indirect supervision. In completing the examination, you mistakenly mislabel the image with regard to the left and right sides of the patient. Department policy requires a repeat image. In doing so, you must be aware that:
a qualified practitioner must review your repeat procedures and directly supervise your work.
Once a radiography student has completed all academic and clinical requirements and achieved graduation, he or she:
is expected to perform according to his or her employer's policies.
You are completing your clinical rotation in a small department that is typically understaffed, particularly on Fridays. On this day the department supervisor has asked a couple of the second-year students if they would skip a scheduled class meeting because of staffing shortages. This event would be viewed as
violation of JRCERT standards
A female radiography student is considered pregnant when she
voluntarily declares her pregnancy in writing to program officials.
The health care industry is a significant part of the U.S. economy. Hospitals, clinics, imaging centers, rehabilitation centers, and other institutions all make up a sizeable network of this country's health care delivery system. The complexities of a hospital and all of its departments, professions, infrastructure and design can be likened to:
communities within a community
A document that guides a hospital as to its purpose and role in the community it serves is called a:
A typical organizational structure of a hospital will have the hospital's chief executive officer (CEO) or president reporting to the:
board of directors
A formal document that outlines the departmental structure of a hospital by showing lines of authority, reporting structures, and the interrelationships of departments is a(n):
All of the physicians practicing medicine within a hospital comprise the hospital's:
All of the following choices would describe a typical radiologist group in a contemporary hospital EXCEPT:
the hospital will conduct their business operations and management, including recruitment.
At a recent radiology department meeting, the director discussed an incident that occurred a few days earlier involving a patient within medical imaging. In his description the director revealed that this patient had an incorrect ultrasound examination performed. Investigation into the situation showed that a receptionist told the patient to wait in the wrong holding area before the examination. The ultrasonographer assumed the patient was in the correct location and performed the wrong examination. To prevent this type of event from occurring in the future, what type of analysis needs to be undertaken by the department?
The federal agency that regulates the use of ionizing radiation including medical and nuclear applications is the:
nuclear regulatory commission (NRC)
Modern medical imaging departments no longer use x-ray film for medical images. The transformation from a film-based environment to a digital medium has had a very profound impact on medicine's standard of care. Among its many virtues, digital medical imaging has permitted the networking and computer storage of thousands of images. The transmission, display, and storage of these images is accomplished through what type of technology?
Employers are looking for two principle traits in all radiologic science professionals. These traits are:
technical competency and teamwork skills
Medical imaging professionals must be aware that their actions, comments, and appearance contribute to the image of their employer and of the profession. Positive interactions with patients and their family members establish goodwill on behalf of the organization. Which of the following is the best single choice that illustrates desirable goodwill efforts enhancing public image?
Wearing attire that is consistent with the dress code and presenting an upbeat attitude
In providing radiology care to a patient, you observe a colleague accidentally exposing the wrong body part. It appears that he is unaware of the mistake. This action would be considered a(n):
An effective method to overcome superimposition of patient anatomy on a radiograph is to:
1. increase the SID
2. angle the x-ray tube.
3. decrease the SOD.
4. rotate the patient into an oblique position.
5. angle the image receptor.
2 and 4 only
As you perform a portable chest radiograph, the optimal SID of 44 inches is unattainable because of orthopedic supports over the patient. It is necessary for you to shorten the SID to 40 inches. A professional radiographer should do which of the following?
Indicate the shorter SID on the examination notes to the radiologist.
As you position patients for various radiographic procedures, you will occasionally angle the x-ray tube assembly. This intentional use of tube angles is referred to as:
As you process a radiographic image of the abdomen of a small child, you notice a small ringlike object on the image. It appears this object is in the patient's stomach, which is consistent with the examination history. The ring shows on the x-ray image because of its metallic density. This is the result of:
attenuation of the x-ray beam by the metallic density of the ring
Bowel gas in the abdomen would be an example of a _____ material, with regard to the x-ray beam.
If a radiograph is produced at 40 inches SID using 32 mAs must be repeated at 72 inches SID, what new mAs setting is necessary to maintain the same image receptor exposure?
If the intensity of the beam is 60mR at the original distance of 40cm, what will the intensity be if the new distance is 20cm?
If the intensity of the beam is 95 mR at the original distance of 40cm, what will the intensity be if the new distance is 20cm?
In a film-based imaging department, automatic processors are an indispensable part of departmental operations. From the choices below, which is NOT TRUE regarding automatic film processing?
they are maintenance free and require annual cleaning
Of all of the energy traveling through the x-ray tube during a radiographic exposure, the largest percentage of this electrical energy is converted to:
thermal energy (heat)
The correct combination of exposure factors necessary to yield a total of 24 mAs using the shortest exposure time to minimize patient motion is _____ mA at _____.
The darkness of a film image is referred to as radiographic density. Given the three sets of mAs calculations that follow, all three should yield the same degree of radiographic density.
1: 200 mA ´ 0.05 ms
2: 100 mA ´ 0.10 ms
3: 400 mA ´ 0.025 ms
This is known as:
The device that intercepts the exit radiation from a patient and creates the radiographic image is the:
The invisible, unprocessed data on an image detector immediately after x-ray exposure form the _____ image.
The latent image in computed radiography is actually _____ within the barium fluorohalide material.
The production of x-radiation that occurs in an x-ray tube requires the movement of negatively charged particles traveling from one side of the tube to the other. This movement of charges must occur in:
The term PSP technology commonly refers to:
computed radiography (CR)
The total quantity of x-ray photons produced during an exposure is determined by the:
The x-radiation that is "left over" and exits the patient to strike the image receptor and create the image is known as _____ radiation.
The x-ray tube component that stops the stream of electrons and produces the x-ray beam is called the:
There are four primary image quality factors. They are:
contrast, IR exposure or density, distortion, and spatial resolution.
When radiographic images of patients are created, many exposure variables come into play to produce optimum image quality. Any change in the radiographic image impression should be the result of:
the patient's medical condition as reflected in the image characteristics.
You have just completed a chest radiograph on a young female patient. As you review the image, you notice she was wearing a necklace during the exposure and it is clearly over the chest anatomy. Submitting this image to the radiologist for interpretation would:
detract from the diagnostic efficacy as it is not part of the patient's anatomy
Radiographic exposure technique selection is most often times performed with what component of an x-ray system?
Portable digital DR detectors show tremendous promise for the radiographer, particularly in terms of image quality and efficiency. Many of these portable detectors have a precision, electrical cord attached to the detector cover. This cord is commonly called a(n):
Physicians can choose from several medical imaging modalities in order to determine their patient's condition. Among these are radiography, MRI, CT scanning, ultrasonography, and nuclear scanning, just to mention a few. Each specialty has its own _______ of information.
Medical images that are displayed on a television monitor rather than on film are referred to as _____ images.
Indirect capture digital radiography is unlike direct capture technology in that indirect technology uses:
a scintillator material to produce light in a two-step process.
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