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Anatomy and Physiology endocrine system and medical imaging
Terms in this set (51)
Which of the following is not a body function regulated by the endocrine system?
Regulation of body temp, metabolism, water/electrolyte balance, growth, blood glucose levels
The endocrine system is composed of several glands located throughout the body. What system is primarily responsible for carrying the hormone signals from the endocrine glands to the effector organs.
The hypothalamus is functionally and anatomically connected to the posterior pituitary lobe by a bridge of....
What is true about the thyroid gland?
It is located anterior to the trachea and inferior to the larynx. The parathyroid glands are embedded within it. It manufactures 3 hormones.
The capillary beds in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland represents an unusual pattern of circulation in which blood flows through two capillary beds before returning to the heart. What is this circulation pattern called?
Modern anatomists argue the name of the pituitary gland should be updated and called the hypophysis. What does the name hypophysis mean?
An out growth BELOW the cerebrum
The anterior pituitary is a true endocrine gland because it produces and secretes hormone. Which anatomical term means part of the hypophysis that produces hormones?
What organ acts as the sensor and integrator in blood glucose homeostasis?
What are 2 hormones primarily involved in blood glucose homeostasis?
Insulin and glucagon
If an autoimmune disorder targets the alpha cells production of which hormone would be directly affected?
Which term indicates a blood glucose level above the target?
What is true about insulin?
Insulin facilitates the movement of intercellular glucose transporters to the cell membrane?
Which of the following components of blood glucose homeostasis best represents the tissue level of organization?
The adrenal glands are attached superiorly to which organ?
The thyroid gland is the endocrine organ primarily responsible for maintaining the proper basal metabolic rate. What is the sensor in BMR?
The thyroid gland secretes hormones including thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) to regulate basal metabolic rate? What is the effector in regulating BMR?
One common lab test performed measures the levels of thyroid hormones in the blood. Which term would indicate abnormally high levels and possibly indicate the presence of a tumor in the pituitary or thyroid glands?
What is the range of a normal blood glucose levels?
What are the 2 energy storage molecules used in the human body?
Triglycerides and glycogen
The body has a very limited capacity to store.....and a nearly unlimited ability to store.....
Glycogen (carbohydrate) : Triglycerides (Fat)
In the fight or flight response which hormone produced by adrenal glands is responsible for mobilization of energy stores?
In the fight or flight response what is the integrator?
The cerebral cortex
In the fight or flight response what are the effectors?
Skeletal muscles, liver, lungs, heart, blood vessels
What does the term hepato in hepatocyte mean?
the body has a tremendous ability to convert biological molecules from one form to another, what type of molecule is involved in those conversions?
The body has a tremendous ability to convert biological molecules from one form to another, which conversion is NOT possible in the human body?
Pyruvate to amino acids
The body has a tremendous ability to convert biological molecules from one form to another, which statement most accurately describes those conversions.
The conversion of molecules from one form to another typically involves many steps.
Which organ of the endocrine system is primarily responsible for regulating BMR
Growth and development of the human body is largely regulated by the endocrine system. As a teenager the idea that your body is controlled by hormones is probably not surprising... the hypothalamus stimulates the release of growth hormone by releasing which hormone into the anterior pituitary?
What hormone suppresses the release of GH as its levels increase?
The endocrine system regulates processes by releasing hormones into the blood stream. The blood and hormones it carries reaches every cell in the body. Which statement explains why the cells of only specific organs and glands respond to these hormones?
Only cells with the receptor for that hormone in their cell membrane will respond.
What do these word parts mean? Ad- : -renal
a) below hypothalamus
b) above kidney
c) above cerebrum
d) within liver
What 3 organs / glands are involved in the HPA axis?
a) hypothalamus - pituitary- adrenal gland
b) hypothalamus- pons- association of cerebral cortex?
c) cortisol - CRH - ACTH
What is the primary stress hormone?
What do these word parts mean? Gluco-neo-genesis
a) formation of new amino acids
b) formation of hormones from glucose
c) formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate molecules such as a protein
d) conversion of glycogen into glucose and pyruvate
Where is stress perceived?
What color is an MRI
Bone- black; Fat- white
Xrays are typically.....or........view
top and bottom
In MRI what positively charged subatomic particle in the hydrogen atoms of water molecules interact with the magnets?
What is a reason to not be able to get an MRI?
Which modality, type of imaging uses ionizing radiation?
d) both CT and xrays
Both CT scans and xrays
How many of the following would absorb the most energy from an X-ray?
3 - heavier materials, teeth, finger bone
Xrays have a....wavelength.....frequency, and....energy
Short, high, high
Images (X-ray, CT, MRI) are?
How is MRI technology different from that used by the X-ray machine or computerized tomography scanner to create images?
a) MR technology is far more flexible than xrays and ct scans, and can generate three dimensional images in any orientation and at any depth in the body.
b) MR technology can produce much clearer images than x-rays and CT scans.
c) MR technology doesn't involve ionizing radiation
d) MR technology is much faster than Xrays and CT scans
A & C
Axial view is from.......looking.......
X-ray and CT scans are produced by relative absorbance of Xrays how is an MRI produced?
a) MR measures the relative production of magnetic fields by different tissues
b) MR measures the resonated RF signal produced by hydrogen atoms
c) MR measures the relative absorbance of radio waves by different tissues
d) MR measures the relative absorbance of magnetic fields by different tissues
Which imaging technology is the least invasive
In electromagnetic radiation, what is the relationship between wavelength, frequency, and energy?
As wavelength decreases, frequency......
As frequency decreases energy......
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