Terms in this set (135)
emperor; (r. 627 - 649); extended power primarily westward into Inner Asia
term used for Song & later versions of Confucian thought
a school of Mahayana Buddhism that started in China during the 6th century as Chán. From China, Zen spread south to Vietnam, northeast to Korea and east to Japan
tribute gift brought to Song court by Champa emissaries; originally from India; fast-maturing
The short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government, and introduced Buddhism to China
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and the Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire. (p. 277)
considered the golden age of Chinese civilization and ruled for nearly 300 years; China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
712, Empress Wu's grandson, became emperor of China, welcomed artisans to his court, Tang arts flourished: translucent pottery - "china"
Chinese system during the Han dynasty in which the goal was to ensure an equitable distribution of land.
independent state that has to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
buddhist influence in china
spread to China, then to SE Asia
A Chinese Buddhist sect (known as Zen in Japan); stressed meditation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society.
Golden Ages of China. Included peace,prosperity, porcelain, poetry, mechanical clocks, gunpowder, sternpost rudder, smallpox vaccine, block printing, moveable type, spinning wheels.
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
acquired by Chinese through trade with Vietnam. ripens twice a year, which allowed farmers to harvest more crops. allowed China's population to expand
internal trade in China
north could trade with south (regionalized goods) by using the grand canal
population and urbanization
Population growth was due to the increase in farming, and more people means more workers, and more workers means more cities, and more people in more cities is urbanization
practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household
The formula, brought to China in the 400s or 500s, was first used to make fumigators to keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannonballs, shot, and bullets. (p. 289)
A printing technique developed by early Chinese printers, who hand-carved characters and illustrations into a block of wood, applied ink to the block, and then printed copies on multiple sheets of paper
This was used for printing, and meant that individual letters and words could be moved around to create a page of type. It was an invention of the Renaissance (gold-smiths and paper-makers working together) and helped the spread of humanism over the Alps as it meant that printing was much easier, cheaper, and more efficient. It also led to the famous printing of vernacular Bibles in 1450 by Gutenberg.
legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China as a convenient alternative to metal coins
Unites Korea, arts flourish, buddhism grows, capital Kyongju was the city of gold.
chinese influence on korea
-Tributary embassies included Korean royal officials and scholars
-The Silla kings built a new capital at Kumsong modeled on the Tang capital
-Korean elite turned to neo-Confucianism; peasants turned to Chan Buddhism
chinese influence on vietnam
-Viet people adopted Chinese agriculture, schools, and thought
-Tributary relationship with China
-When Tang fell, Vietnam gained independence
Differences between Vietnam and China
-Many Vietnamese retained their religious traditions
-Women played more prominent roles in Vietnam than in China
Japanese period (710-794) centered around city of Nara, that was the highest point of Chinese influence.
(794-1185 C.E.) local rulers on the island of Honshu recognized the emperor as Japan's supreme political authority, but, unlike China, Japanese emperors rarely ruled; they only acted as figure heads. Fujiwara family had the power. Two sections of rule: imperial house and ruling parties and factions. Culture of Heian was influenced by Chinese traditions.
Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
The "feudal" period of Japanese history, dominated by the powerful regional families (daimyo) and the military rule of warlords (shogun), stretched from the 12th through the 19th centuries. The Emperor remained but was mostly kept as a figurehead ruling position.
the supreme military commander of Japan
class of warriors in feudal Japan who pledged loyalty to a noble in return for land
code of bushido
"The Way of the Warrior". Samurai Code of Conduct: Loyalty, Bravery, Honor. Those who broke the Code had to commit ritual suicide called Seppuku.
Most popular poet in Tang era
Established the Sui Dynasty
Completed the construction of the Grand Canal
Emperor of the Tang Dynasty; murdered his two brothers and father to get to the throne.
Three policies that helped explain the success of the early Tang dynasty
1. Maintenance of a well-articulated transportation and
2. Distribution of land according to the principles of the equal-
3. Reliance on a bureaucracy based on merit
Equal field system
Allocated land to individuals and their families according to the land's fertility and the recipient's needs
During this time conquered Manchuria, Silla kingdom in Korea, northern part of Vietnam, Aral Sea area and part of Tibet.
Because the Tang leaders became more concerned with music and concubine, this person mounted a rebellion and captured the capital at Chang'an and Luoyang in 755. But by 763 Tang forces had suppressed his army
A nomadic Turkish people that were invited to defeat the rebellions in the the late Tang era.
This empire placed more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and the arts than on military affairs. Approach to administration was a more centralized imperial government than earlier Chinese dynasties
The Song Empire
First Song empire
The 2 Song Weaknesses
1. The gigantic Song bureaucracy devoured China's surplus
pressure, so taxes had to be raised, which caused rebellion.
2. Weak military system
Semi nomadic people from Manchuria
People who conquered the Khitan then captured the Song capital at Kaifeng, which caused the Song empire to move south
How did the Song Dynasty end?
Mongol forces ended the dynasty in 1279 and incorporates southern China into their empire
What were the new agricultural techniques in the Tang and Song era
Heavy iron plows, harnessed oxen, harnessed water buffaloes, enriched soil with manure and composte, organized extensive irrigation system
What did increased food production cause in China
The emergence of a commercialized agricultural economy
The only female empress in China. Reigned from 626 to 706 CE.
When did printing become common?
In the Tang era
What did Buddhism bring into China?
Chairs and sugar.
How were some Buddhist and Chinese values different?
The Buddhist theologians valued a celibate, monastic lifestyle. But, the Chinese centered around the family and encouraged procreation. Some Chinese also thought that the Buddhist monasteries were economically harmful because they paid no taxes
The most important representative of Song neo-Confucianism
Incorporated Daoist values
When was Chinese influence most prominent in Japan?
During the Nara Period; they instituted a Chinese-style bureaucracy, implemented an equal-field system, supported COnfucianism and Buddhism, and at 710 moved to their capital to Nara
Wrote the Tale of Genji
A military governor who ruled in place of the emperor
When was the Tang Dynasty?
When did Chinese Buddhism reach its highest point of popularity?
During the early stages of the Tang Dynasty (618-907)
Why was conflict inevitable in China as Buddhism became more popular?
because so many values of Buddhism were different from the traditional culture of China, especially Confucian values
Who was Han Yu?
a classical prose stylist and poet who was one of the leaders in the Confucian counterattack against Buddhism. He wrote a written attack against Buddhism called Memorial on Buddhism in 819 CE
What was the emperor of China's reaction to Han Yu's writing against Buddhism?
He initially wanted to kill Han Yu, but eventually became content with banishing him to a frontier outpost
What was Neo-Confucianism, when did it happen, and who was considered to be a pioneer of it?
Neo-Confucianism was a Confucian intellectual revival that merged philosophical ideas with traditional Confucian beliefs. In so doing, the Neo-Confucians offered a metaphysical alternative to the otherworldliness of Daoism and Buddhism and undercut them severely. It reached its peak in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Han Yu was considered to be a pioneer of this revival
How does Han Yu imply that those emperors who have espoused Buddhism have lost the Mandate of Heaven?
He implies this by providing examples of unsuccessful emperors who espoused Buddhism.
How does he imply that this religion is not Chinese?
He says that the Buddha did not originate from China and he did not speak Chinese or wear Chinese clothing.
In Han Yu's mind, what are the social and political dangers of Buddhism?
It disagrees with traditional Chinese customs and the rulers who accept Buddhism will be bad rulers of China.
Keeping in mind the Chinese cult of ancestors, why would a Confucian find the practice of venerating the Buddha's finger bone especially disgusting?
Because Confucius said to respect the dead, but keep away from their dead bodies. There was also a tradition of bringing an exorcist to pay respects to the dead to repel bad spirits.
What is one type of thing built by the earlier Sui Dynasty that benefited the Tang Dynasty?
canals, roads, cities
What is one advance in rice-growing technology during the Tang Dynasty?
early ripening rice
rice field plow
Who is famous for aiding Li Yuan in creating the Tang Dynasty?
his son Li Shimin
Who spared the last member of the Sui Dynasty royal family?
The founder of the Tang Dynasty
What were the four main departments of the Tang Dynasty government?
Department of State Affairs
Imperial Grand Secretariat
Council of State
What was the Tang Code?
the standard law of the land
Who did Li Shimin have killed in order to become emperor of China?
his older brothers
Where did Emperor Taizong hang his unfinished work for the day?
on his bedroom walls
Who ordered the first census in the Tang Dynasty?
Who created the Bureau of Historiography?
How many horses did Emperor Taizong maintain?
Emperor Taizong's armies contained both peasants and who else?
Peasants in Emperor Taizong's armies fought as what?
Emperor Taizong destroyed which group of Turks?
Which people defeated all of Emperor Taizong's efforts to conquer them?
What was the main capital of the Tang Dynasty?
What city was the secondary capital of the Tang Dynasty?
The Silk Route mostly traded what valuable items?
silk, horses, spices, fruit, gems, gold
What religions came to China along the Silk Route?
Buddhism, Islam, Judaism, Christianity
From what land did the game of polo come to China?
Empress Wu was the mastermind behind Emperor Gaozong's conquest of what region?
Why was Emperor Zhongzong viewed as irresponsible?
He declared he had the power to give the whole empire away.
Who resigned so that Empress Wu could rule directly?
What was the name of Empress Wu's short-lived dynasty?
New Zhou Dynasty
Empress Wu's title "Sage Mother" was the same as whose mother?
Empress Wu widened recruitment for the government to what group of people?
Who actually ran the government of Emperor Zhongzong when he regained the throne?
Empress Wei and her lover
Who was the most powerful woman during the second reign of Emperor Ruizong?
When Confucian historians wrote that, "A hen cannot crow," who were they talking about?
Emperor Xuanzong was the "_____ Emperor"?
Emperor Xuanzong did what to the ministers when he came to power?
He executed or exiled them.
Name one famous Tang Dynast poet.
Du Fu, Bai Juyi, Li Bai
What products were government monopolies during the Tang Dynasty?
silk, tea, salt, iron, liquor
Who did Emperor Xuanzong have to allow to die in order to escape rebels?
What was the name of An Lushan's short-lived dynasty?
What city did Tibetan raiders sack during the An Lushan Rebellion?
What percent of the empire died during the An Lushan Rebellion?
What killed An Lushan?
What about the reigns of the later Tang emperors weakened the dynasty?
They were short.
The Tibetans and what other group raided China during the late Tang Dynasty?
How many eunuchs worked in the palace by the year 800?
Eunuchs fought for power with what other two groups during the late Tang Dynasty?
government officials and empresses' families
Which religion was persecuted during some of the late Tang Dynasty?
What finally doomed the Tang Dynasty?
"Thorns and brambles filled the city. Foxes and hares ran everywhere." What is being described by this poet?
At the end of the dynasty, those armed by the government tended to do what?
join the rebels
A canal, built during the Sui Dynasty, that connected the Huang (Yellow) and Yangzi rivers
A consort to Emperor Wu, Empress Wu declared herself emperess in 680 CE (Tang Dynasty) after her husband died. She then circulated a sutra that a Buddhist monk wrote saying that the next reincarnation of Buddha will be a woman.
Medieval Chinese Economic Revolution
- 800 - 1100 CE
- Population doubles from 50 million to 100 million
- Farmers go from being self-sufficient to commercialization
- Increase in copper coins
- Creation of paper money (no intrinsic value)
- Joint stock companies
- Creation of guilds (similar to unions)
- Ship designs improved
- Compass invented
- Advances in Metallurgy
- Increase in iron production
- Creation of gun powder
- Increase in concubines/courtesans
- Scholar officials still highest class
Tea Trade (p. 330)
- Started being grown and drunk during Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE)
- Believed to "sober you up"
- Tang Dynasty (608 - 907 CE) made tea a major item in trade
- Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE) established government monopoly on tea
- Tea spread to Korea and Japan as part of a Buddhist culture
- Monks drank it to stay awake during long meditation or recitation
- Tea became important in Europe in the seventeenth century
- Started in Russia in 1618
- Established during the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279 CE)
- Scholar-officials were selected through a highly competetive, greuling civil service exam on Confucianism and the Analects
- If you did well, you get a government job
- only a third of the scholars passed
- The revival of Confucian thinking that began in the eleventh century
- Turned Confucianism into more of a religion than a philosophy
- Made to rival Buddhist thinking
- Ancient and medieval prostitutes
- A way of showing off wealth
- Author of "Memorial on Buddhism" (819 CE) which criticizes Buddhist ways
- wanted to revert back to Confucianism
- Said that you lose heritage (Mandate of Heaven, Filial Piety, etc.) with Buddhism
- 581 - 618 CE
- Founded by Yang Jian
- built the Grand Canal
- Connected Huang (Yellow) and Yangzi Rivers
- 618 - 907 CE
- Founded by Li Yuan
- Its capital, Chang'an was the cultural center of East Asia
- 960 - 1279 CE
- Founded by Tai Zu
- Were in power for most of the MCER
- First to have paper money
- Male-imposed practice to mutilate women's feet in order to reduce size
- produced pain and restricted movement
- helped to confine women to the household
- Capital of Tang dynasty
- population of 2 million
- larger than any other city in the world at that time.
The book refers to China and the Byzantine and Abbasid empires as "political and economic anchor[s] of the postclassical world." What does this phrase mean? What did all three of the powers have in common? How did those factors contribute to their political and economic effectiveness?
They were the greatest in the world when it came to trade.
Each had a long coastline and a lot of access to water for trade.
Each empire was able to trade effectively because of the water, and they were able to grow even more due its surplus of goods from the trade.
The Chinese population underwent rapid growth from 600 to 1200. What developments during this period promoted that growth? What were the economic advantages of having such a large population? What are the potential disadvantages?
The developments in farming such as rice that matured faster promoted this growth. The economic advantages are the large workforce. The potential disadvantages are not having enough food to go around.