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anthro unit exams 1 and 2
Terms in this set (60)
Franz Boas (1858-1942) rejected unilineal cultural evolution, instead suggesting that different cultures arise as the result of very different causes and will vary widely. What do we call his approach?
Anthropologists have uncovered evidence of vast trade networks throughout the entire continent of North America that long predate the arrival of Europeans. The exchange of cultural traits that can occur through such material exchanges is called
When studying abroad, Shelby talks about racial categories in the United States. Her new friends from other countries are surprised and say that racial categories based on visible differences such as skin color are different in their countries. Shelby remembers from her anthropology class that racial categorization can be explained by
people's mental maps of reality.
An anthropologist conducts ethnographic research on the lives of undocumented immigrant families. How might the anthropologist justify publishing intimate and potentially incriminating details about the subjects?
The researcher must have obtained informed consent and ensured the anonymity of the subjects.
In late-nineteenth-century debates on immigration in the United States, many scholars and government officials privileged northern European immigrants over southern Europeans, such as Italians and Greeks, whom they saw as a separate and inferior biological race with primitive ways. This is an example of
Which of the following is defined as the ability to create consent and agreement within a population, sometimes unconsciously, by shaping what people think is normal, natural, and possible?
Human beings have long been migrants, moving themselves, their material goods, and even ideas from one part of the world to another. What makes this process, which is now called globalization, seem so different today than in the past?
What is one key aspect in how we understand the idea of culture?
Humans are constantly learning culture over the life span.
What is considered the most distinctive feature of being human?
Ten-year-old Davi is getting dressed to go to a wedding at a synagogue. When his parents see that he's wearing jeans and a T-shirt, they tell him that he needs to wear a suit instead. What are Davi's parents teaching him?
Ancient rift valleys and deep caves often contain human fossils that can provide clues about human evolution and the lives of our ancestors. What do we call an anthropologist who only studies the human evolutionary aspect of fossils?
Margaret Mead's fieldwork in Samoa was controversial in part because she examined sexual freedom, and considered sexual behavior to be rooted in
Which of the following describes how anthropologists describe the primary way humans adapt to and manipulate their physical and social environments, in light of the human evolutionary past?
Cultural adaptation has mostly replaced genetic adaptation.
What is American Sign Language (ASL) an example of?
What did Bronislaw Malinowski specifically encourage fellow anthropologists to do in his guidelines?
take time to learn the local language of the people being studied
Ken Guest studies a community in New York's Chinatown and another in Fuzhou, China, that are linked by migration. What term best describes his research?
Like the "N-word," the term "queer" changes in meaning, depending on how it is used and by whom. These examples illustrate which concept in linguistic anthropology?
the implications of how deeply language and power intersect
In an age of intensifying globalization, ethnographic research continues to provide a deep understanding of informants' everyday lives and cultures, due in large part to the continued use of what specific part of the anthropologist's toolkit?
What is the significant difference between quantitative and qualitative data?
Qualitative data cannot be counted.
An anthropologist writes an ethnography of coal miners in West Virginia purely from their own "insider's" point of view. What perspective is the anthropologist using?
The words "day" and "pay" might sound like the same word to a nonnative speaker of English, but they have very different meanings. A linguist would identify the "d" and "p" sounds as different _________.
Global poverty has risen dramatically over the past twenty years, and anthropologists generally consider it a sign of:
Aliyah is an anthropologist who uses social media to study how relationships evolve over time. Specifically, she is interested in how people ascribe social meaning to "friending" and "unfriending" people on social networking platforms and how these words developed. What kind of language is she studying?
What does Benjamin Whorf 's research with the Hopi, a Native American group in the southwestern United States, suggest about language?
Thought occurs independently of language.
Attempts to document Native American cultures that anthropologists feared would disappear with the westward expansion of settlers are called salvage ethnography. This method involves
rapidly gathering available material and key interviews.
It is often said that the native Aztecs mistook the Spanish conquistadors for gods. The Nahuatl word that they used, teotl, does means "god," but it also means "demon" or "god impersonator" (someone intended for sacrifice). This illustrates how language is organized into categories that
may not make sense to members of other groups with different cultural realities.
The introduction of global communication methods mean that anthropologists' work is now read by new audiences worldwide. What implications does this have with respect to writing and publishing ethnography?
Anthropologists must consider that members of informant communities may read their publications and that they will expect their communities to be accurately portrayed and their concerns appropriately expressed.
Archaeology, the study of cultures in the human past, focuses on
any human material remains.
What might an anthropologist who is interested in kinesics study?
how body language varies across cultures
The concept of culture is a very recent idea and was actually developed by
Edward Burnett Tylor's work in England
What is the primary difference between assimilation and multiculturalism?
Assimilation implies a loss of ethnic identity
In Brazil, race is not merely a matter of skin color. It also includes a consideration of
wealth and education
With which of the following statements about human behavior would an anthropologist be most likely to agree?
It is a combination of nature (biology) and nurture (enculturation).
Traditionally, in order to be Jewish, a person must have a Jewish mother, follow the Jewish religion, and abide by kosher food limitations. Although they are not ironclad, these customs set "traditional" Jewish people apart from others. What concept does this serve to illustrate?
ethnic boundary markers
Which of the following reasons can partially explain the conflict between the Rohingya and the Bamar in Myanmar?
Colonial rule strengthened ethnic identities and forced different ethnicities to form a single nation-state.
According to Chrys Ingraham, the images of "white weddings" perpetuated in the media and children's toys
make the patterns of heterosexuality seem natural and unchanging, rather than cultural.
When did the cultural practice of the "one drop of blood" rule end in the United States?
It has not ended in practice.
The current argument over whether to build a wall between Mexico and the United States reflects, in part, what long-standing aspect of how race is constructed and managed in the United States?
What groups could anthropologists study to learn more about what it means to be transgender in different geographical regions?
hijras and Two-Spiri
The text describes the way in which immigrants from India have established their own cultural norms within New York City. The way the Indian community has chosen to celebrate its ethnicity by holding a large India Day festival is an example of what aspect of ethnicity?
Ethnicity is constantly evolving
If a person inherits genes for a dark complexion and blue eyes from their parents, what aspect of inheritance does this refer to?
In 2008, a little more than 50 percent of live births in the United States were male and the rest were designated as female. Recent medical studies suggest that of all live births, many individuals do not fit neatly into either biological category. What is the current estimate of the percentage of such births?
almost 2 percent
As immigrant arrivals to the United States peaked in the mid-1900s, newcomers dispersed into cities and towns, often attempting to "blend in." This was done in order to embrace their new lives, but it was also a way of trying to stay safe from prejudice and hatred. What term describes this process of "blending in"?
Babylon, Mesopotamia, and the "cradle of civilization" are all terms of historical importance that we implicitly link to the nation of Iraq. Although this creates the sense that Iraq is an ancient nation-state, Iraq
has only existed since World War 1
According to Jonathan Ned Katz, when was heterosexuality "invented"?
in 1892, when the term was first used in the United States
Single mothers are more likely to face poverty, hunger, and illness than single fathers. This is an example of
Anthropological research reveals that most ethnic groups and nations are recent historical creations, our connection to people within these groups is relatively new, and our shared traditions are recently invented. In addition, most members will never meet each other. This allows us to observe that most nations today are
Jade is an anthropologist who studies the differences in behavior and language use of male and female political candidates. She observes their physical demeanor and the kinds of language they use in speeches and debates. What aspect of gender is Jade studying?
A long history of violence, repression, and war in the tiny nation of Eritrea has resulted in a large out-migration of the citizenry. As a means of "striking back," many of these migrants have banded together to maintain close emotional ties to their homeland. These groups of people living outside their homelands but maintaining strong emotional and material ties to it are referred to as
What do we call the British Empire's military, economic, and political control over Malaysia?
Three hundred years of forced transport of millions of Africans to North and South America resulted in
How did Margaret Mead's work contribute to a greater understanding of human sexuality?
It challenged the assumption that U.S. attitudes toward sexuality were universal traits fixed in human nature.
Many immigrant groups—Arab, Czech, French, Irish, Italian, Greek, Jewish, and others—have contributed to what has been known as a "melting pot" in America. What term do anthropologists prefer today to better reflect the role of ethnicity in the United States?
A man from Cuba and a man from Peru both move to the United States. Although they did not identify with one another while living in their countries of origin, they both come to identify themselves as members of the same group ("Hispanic") within the United States. This example illustrates
situational negotiation of identity
Nineteenth-century references to "heterosexuality"
treated it as to it as a perversion because of its association with sex for pleasure.
Despite their argument for the recognition of diversity and fluidity in human sexual behavior, the work of early sexologists such as Kinsey
tended to reinforce the idea of heterosexuality as the dominant erotic ideal and practice in the United States.
How do anthropologists refer to the way in which cultural institutions and systems of power interconnect to affect individual lives and group experiences?
President Barack Obama's mother was a white woman from Kansas and his father was a black man from Kenya. What deeply embedded concept of racial division is revealed by the way people regard his race and even debate his birthplace?
According to Pei-chia Lan, how do Filipino and Indonesian women assert new gender status roles?
They send remittances to their families, providing a major source of support.
Which of the following statements about the mati of Suriname is correct?
Mati regard sexuality as a flexible behavior rather than a fixed identity.
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