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Terms in this set (150)
While the Spanish Empire ruled much of the New World and many wealthy territories in Europe, it met its match in the Netherlands, where
All of these
What was not a characteristic of the United Provinces?
It was solidly Catholic
How did Elizabeth manage to secure a peaceful succession?
She adopted the Stuart heir, James, and raised him Protestant.
What was the Fronde?
The resistance of the nobility to the policies of absolutism in France
How did Louis architecturally symbolize his theory of absolutism?
he constructed the great palace of Versailles
Political and religious opposition to Charles I of England resulted in
civil war and execution of the king.
What was the outcome of the English civil war?
All of the above
Who were the Huguenots?
The Petition of Right (1628)
used conservative arguments to expand parliamentary participation in the English government
What was the name of the French representative assembly?
Molière and Racine were
playwrights during the height of French drama
The Ottoman threat to Europe finally ended with which of the following?
the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699
The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
showed the degree to which religious differences had strained the fabric of community life.
What contributed to the weakness of the Holy Roman Emperors?
All of the Above
The dominant power on the Baltic coast in the seventeenth century was
The Edict of Nantes
All of the Above
Where does the Thirty Years' War break out?
Which nation did Russia fight in the Great Northern War?
The Thirty Years' War concluded with the
Peace of Westphalia
What is an accurate description of the plantation system?
forced labor producing crops on large-scale farms
The gentry consisted of wealthy urban merchants
The "Glorious Revolution" greatly undermined Parliamentary power in England.
The order of Philip II to invade England with an armada was prompted by the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots, by Elizabeth I
The first successful French colony was established in Quebec.
The deaths of young children or domestic animals were among the most common triggers for witchcraft accusations in the 17th century.
According to the Chronology Chart in this chapter, the first scientific academy of this period was founded in
How did eighteenth-century gardens represent increased confidence in the relationship between humans and nature?
Landscapes were made to emphasize the natural work of nature.
The creation of a more reliable calendar in the 16th century was undertaken by
What nation is created in 1707 by the Act of Union?
The ancient most revered for his medical theories was
Catherine the Great was known to personally correspond with many in the European intellectual community.
What is "Hermeticism"?
a system that describes all of reality as imbued with divine or magical spirits
The Seven Years' War was a land war initiated by Frederick the Great who hoped to prevent the new alliances that were forming in Europe.
Paracelsus stimulated innovative thought by rejecting the
idea that the ancients were the ultimate authorities on natural phenomena.
The Neo-Platonists were
Philosophers who emphasized abstract, particularly mathematical, knowledge
What was the Church's attitude towards Copernicus' work?
His work helped to stimulate the papal Gregorian reform of the calendar.
Descartes' "corpuscles" were
a forerunner of modern atomic and quantum theories.
What is Cartestian Dualism?
The positing of a mind that is apart from, yet able to know, the world
The chief scientific contribution of Isaac Newton was
mathematical computation of the laws of gravity and planetary motion.
Pope Urban VIII condemned Galileo's writings and withheld any support for his scientific work.
Locke believed that all human knowledge was based on experience.
The position that the state is a machine run by laws and the skills of the ruler was held by Spinoza.
Of the following, which is the best description of the Enlightenment?
An intellectual movement that applied the new scientific worldview to the study of people and society
A leading proponent of the Enlightenment, Voltaire
All of the above.
In addition to his work on law, Montesquieu was known for
advocating separation of legislative, executive, and judicial powers in government.
What does laissez-faire mean?
The economic theory of free trade and exchange
David Hume was all of the following except a/an
champion of the reliability of sense knowledge
Rousseau envisioned what kind of a society?
direct democracy of the "General Will: in an all-powerful state
What is Kant concerned with in his philosophy?
reconciling Descartes and Empiricists
Which country provided the international intellectual language of the mid-eighteenth century and was the center of cultural life?
Which country had the first codified constitution in Europe?
The Terror ended with
the execution of Robespierre and his colleagues.
Toussaint-l'Ouverture, a former slave, governed the island of Saint Domingue as an independent state after the slave revolt of 1791.
What country in Europe had the most religious toleration in the 1700s?
What was the Liberum Veto
The veto possessed by each and every Polish nobleman
Napoleon Bonaparte succeeded in
all of the above
Solidarity among the working classes transcended skill, position, and gender, to bring all the workers together on common ground.
What nation leads the world in the installation of railways?
The storming of the Bastille was the result of
the king's use of troops.
Which of the following did not contribute to the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire?
The resounding Russian victory at Borodino
Because of the upheaval and wars of the French Revolution and slow population growth, France was much slower to industrialize then Britain,
Which industry was the first to benefit from mass production?
France became involved in the American Revolution because
France hoped to recoup some of its colonial losses to the British.
Two important factors in industrialization were
improved transportation and technological breakthroughs.
What fuel powered the first industrial revolution?
As a result of its alliance with the American colonies, France experienced
a financial crisis and the spread of revolutionary ideas.
The steam engine did all of the following except
decentralize the workplace.
One of the most potent political pamphlets, called What is the Third Estate, argued
the Third estate truly represented the popular mandate.
Which was the leading continental manufacturing power by the end of the 1800s?
Lafayette was involved in which of the following?
Massacre of the Champ
The most industrialized regions of eastern and southern Europe were
Bohemia and Catalonia
Who were the sans-culottes?
none of the above
What is the proletariat?
the workers in the factories
Who makes up the bourgeoisie?
the new middle class
What was the effect of factory work on the working-class family?
All of the above.
Which conflict saw the foundation of the Red Cross?
War between Austria and Piedmont in 1859
The Ottoman provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia combined to form what nation?
The Suez Canal
cut travel time from India to Europe in half.
The great medical breakthrough of disinfectant was made by
The Paris Commune demanded all of the following except
abolition of private property
How did the increased prosperity and greater productivity affect the workers and the poor?
Life expectancies differed by income with lower classes dying much younger.
Charles Darwin's theory included the inevitability of evolution
all of the above
The Factory Acts in Great Britain
regulated child and female labor
Which area was a focus of the "New Imperialism"?
What is Realpolitik?
The rejection of ethics and ideology in politics in order to expand the power of a state.
The first nation to offer a comprehensive welfare program including health insurance and old-age pensions was
One of the causes of the Boxer Rebellion included
the actions of the "Righteous and Harmonious Fists."
The Crimean War
was fought, in part, in the hope of building the foundation for Anglo-French friendship.
Pope Leo XIII's encyclical Rerum novarum
condemned Christian neglect of the poor
Which nationalities were involved in the Boer War?
Dutch and English
Florence Nightingale was a heroine of the Crimean War because she
organized nurses to care for British soldiers.
Auguste Comte's philosophy held that
science demeans and lowers the humanity of mankind.
Which of the following is associated with anarchists?
All of these
As a result of the political cult of Garibaldi, Italy enjoyed unity and equality between the north and south of the country.
Theodore Herzl was famous for which new ideology?
Otto von Bismarck was a Prussian reactionary aristocrat who had opposed the liberal movement in 1848, and was the right-hand man of Wilhelm I.
105. The Bolsheviks were a faction of the Russian Socialist Democratic Party led by Marxist Vladimir Lenin.
Jules Verne's Around the World in Eighty Days is emblematic of
the triumph of modern technologies.
105. The assassination of the Austro-Hungarian heir and his wife by an Italian nationalist led to the outbreak of World War I.
What were the "Sacred Union" and the "Fortress Truce"?
The union of all political parties in support of war efforts
World War I was fundamentally
a land war
In its efforts to enforce the postwar settlement, France
occupied the Ruhr, one of Germany's major industrial regions.
Who was the eventual victor in the struggle for power after Lenin in Russia?
The outbreak of war in August 1914 was met with
enthusiasm, euphoria, and patriotism
Over the course of the First World War
all of the above
The Maginot Line was
a massive system of fortifications built by the French to separate themselves from the Germans.
What did Fascism mean by a "Third Way"?
an alternative to capitalism and socialism
What was the "Schlieffen Plan"?
A German military plan to strike France.
In which country did democracy survive the 1920s?
What reinforced the utility of trench warfare in World War I?
Fritz Lang's movie Metropolis explored
the dehumanization and exploitation in modern society.
Who was a key military figure in postwar Germany?
Dada was a movement that promoted
chaotic artistic productions
What was one reason that 1917 was a turning point?
United States entered the war
The new national borders of east-central European countries meant
new economic barriers
What was a Soviet?
A council of leaders
After World War I the United States continued to play a significant role in European politics into the 1920s.
Why did the German military help Lenin get back to Russia?
they knew he would destabilize their enemy
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) was a British novelist who believed advancements in women's writing could only be achieved if they developed their own tradition of writing.
What was Lenin's ideology?
he was a radical communist revolutionary
One outcome of the Treaty of Locarno allowed for the eventual membership of Germany in the League of Nations
Which empire ceased to exist after World War I?
The Treaty of Versailles stipulated that Germany
all of the above
The League of Nations was suggested after WWI by Hindenburg
The 'cold war' refers to the hostile standoff between the Soviet Union and the United States that began after World War II.
What was the result of the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act?
Higher tariffs led to a cycle of trade restrictions, deepening the depression.
Which of the following did Japan adopt to deal with the Depression?
Expansionism; Japan annexed Manchuria in 1931 and attacked the rest of China in 1937.
Hitler's program for Germany
included eastward expansion into Slavic territories in order to compete in the global arena.
Mussolini's foreign policy in 1934 and 1935 included
The policy of appeasement
Which of the following does not apply to Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will?
The Nazis used it solely for recruiting purposes.
Mao Zedong spread communism in China in the 1930s by
appealing to the peasantry
Hitler's anti-Semitism differed from conventional racism in
regarding Jews as uniquely harmful to the natural, healthy struggle among racial groups.
Hitler's attack on Poland was part of his long-range goal of
The policy of appeasement culminated in the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939.
Soviet propaganda relating to worker productivity
In September 1939
Germany invaded Poland unprovoked.
What was the GULAG?
forced labor camps for political prisoners
The Battle of Britain was
a two-month German aerial bombardment of Britain.
The Weimar Republic
was legally overthrown by the Nazis
What was Operation Barbarossa?
The German plans to invade the Soviet Union.
How did Hitler finally achieve power?
by stonewalling the Reichstag until Papen and Hindenburg had little choice left
Which of the following best describes the German occupation of Europe?
Germany sought collaborators in the west but waged a brutal campaign of exploitation and ethnic cleansing in the east.
Hitler's plan for his new eastern European territory was to
resettle millions of Germans on land from which Poles and other Slavs had been removed by murder or expulsion.
What stopped the Nazi advance in Russia at the end of 1941?
Hitler's "final solution to the Jewish problem" seemed originally to involve
forced emigration of jews
How did concentration camps differ from death camps?
Death camps were for extermination, whereas concentration camps were more like mass prisons.
What Asian country was allied with the United States before war broke out in 1941?
109. Blitzkrieg was the place where Poland signed their surrender to Germany.
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