Critical Eval. of Research week 5

What are the four basic elements that an experimental design contains?
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There are two types of developmental research designs. (1) design evaluates changes in behavior related to age by examining different groups of individuals with each group representing a different age. (2) design evaluates changes in behavior related to age by examining one group of participants who are roughly the same age, at different times.
Researchers indicate that people who suffer from depression also tend to experience insomnia. However, it is unclear whether the depression causes insomnia or the lack of sleep causes depression. What problem is demonstrated by this example? (Select one from the following)
a. the directionality problem
b. the third-variable problem
c. the extraneous variable problem
Field studies tend to have (higher/lower) internal validity and (higher/lower) external validity than experimental research studies.lower, higherNonexperimental and correlational designs tend to have less control than the experimental design. How does this affect the internal and external validity of nonexperimental and correlation studies? (This question is related to topics from week 4 (e.g., a balancing act between internal and external validity). Hint: Look at the figure below.)non experimental and correlational studies tend to have lower internal validity and higher external validity