American Literature Mid Term 2
Terms in this set (169)
Lived in many in US and Europe. Neighbor to Emerson, Thoreau, and Fuller for some time. Best friends with Melville. Romancer (underlying issues, imaginary scenes) and realist (critically at US society/character). When going through writing lulls worked in government related jobs. Envy/antipathy towards women writers and intellectuals.
My Kinsman, Major Molineux
About Robin (18 y.o.) going to Boston to find Major Molineux (relative). But Major Molineux is tared and fathered. Robin "have the name of being a shrewd youth."
Young Goodman Brown
Goodman Brown goes on a journey into the forest. He is met by a devil figure that leads him to a sabbath where he (Brown) and anyone else who attends will be inducted into an evil brotherhood. When he gets there see's his wife Faith, and at the last minute tells her "Look up to Heaven, and resist the Wicked One." Right after he says it everyone disappears and he is left alone in the woods never to know if it was a dream or reality. Lives the rest of his life stern, sad, and distrustful.
A man named Wakefield leaves his wife and says he will back in a few days. Instead he goes to an apartment one street away. He feels like he has no purpose and wants to know what will happen at home in his absence. He buys a disguise and watches his wife from a distance (wanted to say away until his wife is "frightened half to death." 20 years later he goes home and the story ends with the couple reunited at the threshold.
Alymer a scientist meets a very beautiful woman, Georgiana, and marries her. The only imperfection is a birth mark on her cheek that looks like a very tiny hand. To Alymer is becomes a "symbol of his wife's sin, sorrow, decay, and death." He had a dream of removing it and as a result tells his wife and she agrees to have it removed. He tried giving her agents but it did not work. Alymer tries one last thing that worked on the dying flower once his wife drank it the birthmark when away but she was now dying.
Giovanni, a medical student, that lives next to Dr. Rappaccini and his daughter Beatrice. The doctor has a garden of poisonous plants he uses for medical cures. His daughter is immune to from exposure over the years. Goivanni presents himself to Dr. Baglioni at the university. Dr. Baglioni and Dr. Rappaccini have been rivals for many years. Animals can dye just being around the plants and around Beatrice. Goivanni gives Beatrice flowers from a window and as she carries them away they dye as well. Goivanni goes to the garden. Beatrice and Goivanni spend time together but never hold hands, kiss, etc. Dr. Baglioni tells Goivanni that Beatrice is poisonous and give him a cure for her. Goivanni begins to wither flowers and kill insects when he breaths on them. Beatrice does not understand how this happened to him. He says they can both be cured and gives her the "antidote" Baglioni gave him. She drinks from it first and it turns out to be poison and she will die from it.
She had a strict father but was given excellent education. She was not allowed to read "women's" books. She knew 4 languages. She was friends with Emerson and Thoreau. Hawthorne liked but also disapproved of her. She wanted to challenge a society that she believed taught women "not to think."
* The Great Lawsuit: Man versus Men. Woman versus Women
* Margaret Fuller
Calls our for independent, great spirits, like Orpheus and Eurydice. Discusses U.S. history. Critiques the idea that man is the head, woman is the heart of a family. Links women's movement with abolitionism. Argues that women's minds should be challenged as much as men's. In their soul, men and women are exactly the same. Talks about different kinds of marriages (financial, passionate, and rational). Maybe women should avoid marriage for a time to become whole units before they join another. Men and women represent two sides of one whole. Union is only possible to those who are units.
Review of Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave
Henry David Thoreau
He lived in a self-built cabin on Emerson's property at Walden Pond. He never married but did propose to Ellen. Her father did not approve but they stayed friendly. At his death he stated that he had always loved her. There is the idea that Thoreau may have been gay.
Resistance to Civil Government
Compares government to a machine. Thoreau used the idea of slavery as a metaphor. His main argument is the individual's conscience is more important than society's rules and laws.
He believed the best government was one with severely limited power. It should only be used to carry out moral and ethical actives on behalf of the citizens.
Walden, or Life in the Woods
Key themes: transcendentalism, individualism, independence, self-reliance material studies (the nature of things), morality (question of ethics). humanity's place in nature/the world, simplified living.
Walden Chapter 1 Economy
Economy stands alone, it gives the logic behind his project. It is a practical statement. He outlines his two-year project at Walden Pond. He only lived there for a few years, it was not meant to be permanent but an experiment. He talks about how others reacted (concern for his well-being, health, lack of companionship...) The whole point of him doing this was to illustrate the benefit of a simplified lifestyle. He identifies only four necessities: food, shelter, clothing, and fuel.
Walden Chapter 2 Where I Lived, and What I Lived For
This is his philosophical statement of his project. He talks about several places where he almost settled before selecting Walden Pond. He realizes everything happens for a reason and that he was unable to settle anywhere else and chose Walden Pond for a reason. He gets/wants to live free of obligations and have leisure in the woods. He is also free from time here he gets to participate in the flow of time whenever and however he chooses.
Walden Chapter 11 Higher Laws
The concept of morality and being attached to all out actions. He sees a woodchuck on his walk home and wants to devour it. He notices the noble and spiritual part of himself, as well as the dark and savage part; he values both sides of himself. He is a skilled fisherman but has impulse toward vegetarianism. This is based on his instincts rather than on actual experience of poor health. He also avoids consumption of alcohol, tea, and coffee for the same reason. He believe we could strive to be either chaste or sensual, pure or impure.
Walden Chapter 12 Brute Neighbors
Thoreau's good friend William Ellery Channing sometimes accompanied him on his fishing trips. Thoreau created a version of their conversation using a hermit (Thoreau) and a poet (Channing). The poet is absorbed in the clouds the hermit is occupied with more practical things (getting fish for dinner). At the end the poet regrets not catching a fish. Thoreau plays with the mice that share his house and a robin, a partridge, and her brood. Talks about his encounters with raccoons, otters, woodchucks, cats, and turtledoves. Tells about army of black ants vs. red ants and its resemblance to human wars; he concluded ants are just as spirited as humans.
Walden Chapter 18 Conclusion
Another philosophical statement of his project. Thoreau talks about how doctors recommend a change of scenery for the sick, but he argues they need a change of soul rather than landscape. He left Walden Pond because he had other lives to live and changes to experience. He urges us to sell our fancy clothes and keep our thoughts, get rid of our civilized shells and find our truer selves.
Huntington, Long Island
He was raised in Brooklyn and left school at 11 to work odd jobs in the city. By his teens he was selling poems to Manhattan papers. At 26 he was an editor, and at he is self-published. He was gay. Themes of transcendent power of love, comradeship throughout his poetry. Also body and soul connection through the body and sexuality.
* Preface to Leaves of Grass
Nature, Truth, Beauty, God, Sexuality. America does not repel the past or what it has produced. The united States themselves are essentially the greatest poem. The President's taking off his hat to them not they to him. The messages of great poets to man and woman are, Come to us on equal terms, Only then can you understand us, We are no better than you...
One's-Self I Sing
Shut Not Your Doors
* Song of Myself
The American poem. Begins loafing in the grass speaking directly to the reader. Ends the same way. The theme of a leisurely visit and walk on the grass runs throughout the plot of the poem.
Section 6 - A child said What is the grass?
Section 10 - The runaway slave
Section 15 - The famous Whitman list...
From Pent-up Aching Rivers
Out of the Cradle Endlessly Rocking
As I Ebb'd with the Ocean of Life
When I Heard the Learn'd Astronomer
The Dalliance of the Eagles
Beat! Beat! Drums!
Cavalry Crossing a Ford
Vigil Strange I Kept on the Field One Night
A March in the Ranks Hard-Prest, and the Road Unknown
A Sight in Camp in the Daybreak Gray and Dim
As Toilsome I Wander'd Virginia's Woods
As I Lay with My Head in Your Lap Camerado
Spirit Whose Work is Done
When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd
Theme deals with the death of the president; really the procession of Lincoln's body back to Illinois. It follows the actual events closely. IT's an elegy (poem written after death of a loved one). The idea in this poem is the passing through stages of grief in the course of the poem until reaching final acceptance. It's the speaker at the funeral but they can't stay because they can't find comfort indoors. So he turns to nature and the hermit thrush sings a song of death. As a result the speaker suddenly understands everything and is comforted. He can finally return home, and tell us his Truth.
She was a homebody. She was well-educated and religion was a fundamental part of her education. She seeks to free herself from Him and finds her outlet in her poetry.
I never lost as much but twice
And that was in the sod.
Twice have I stood a beggar
Before the door of God!
Angels, twice descending,
Reimbursed my store.
Burglar, banker, father,
I am poor once more!
Poem is about a loss of her two friends when she was younger. She blames God for taking them away and refusing to return them.
Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed.
To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need.
Not one of all the purple Host
Who took the Flag today
Can tell the definition
So clear of victory
As he defeated - dying -
On whose forbidden ear
The distant strains of triumph
Burst agonized and clear!
Those who never succeed place the highest value on success. Member of victories as well as members who have been defeated are not able to define victory.
These are the days when Birds come back-
A very few-a Bird or two-
To take a backward look.These are the days when skies resume
The old-old sophistries of June-
A blue and gold mistake.Oh fraud that cannot cheat the Bee-
Almost thy plausibility
Induces my belief.Till ranks of seeds their witness bear-
And softly thro' the altered air
Hurries a timid leaf.Oh Sacrament of summer days,
Oh Last Communion in the Haze-
Permit a child to join.Thy sacred emblems to partake-
They consecrated bread to take
And thine immortal wine!
Birds are deceived of the weather and fly back even thought they have already gone south for the winter. Nature is unpredictable.
Besides the Autumn poets sing,
A few prosaic days
A little this side of the snow
And that side of the Haze -
A few incisive mornings -
A few Ascetic eves -
Gone - Mr Bryant's "Golden Rod" -
And Mr Thomson's "sheaves."
Still, is the bustle in the brook -
Sealed are the spicy valves -
Mesmeric fingers softly touch
The eyes of many Elves -
Perhaps a squirrel may remain -
My sentiments to share -
Grant me, Oh Lord, a sunny mind -
Thy windy will to bear!
From Fascicle 10
This law required Northern states to return fleeing Slaves to the South
The Fugitive Slave Law
This nation had its own written language and alphabet
Term for people who wanted to stop the spread of slavery to new US territories
Greek "X" A figure of speech in which a sequence of two phrases or clauses, which are parallel in syntax, reverse the order of their corresponding words
Frederick Douglass's cruel overseer
The name of the ship in Moby Dick, symbolic of a defeated Native American tribe
Ahab is a classic example of this psychosis
This is the original setting of Moby-Dick
In Hawthorne's story, Beatrice is connected to what sci-fi element
The minister in Hawthorne story wore this frightening garment
A cultural movement that focuses on individualism, self-reliance, and a close connection to nature
Thoreau is criticizing US policy during this war in his essay on Civil Disobedience
The US-Mexican War
This is one of Thoreau's key focal points in Walden, he manes a title after it
This is a key symbol throughout Whitman's poetry
The three symbols used in "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd"
Venus (the star), lilacs, and the hermit thrush (lone bird)
A feeling of awe and terror - often brought about through nature
Fuller makes this change to Emerson's call for self-reliance
She applies it to women
The subject of love and romance is one of the noted themes of her work
Emily Dickinson revolutionized poetry in these ways
Fuller refers to this Greek myth in her thesis
Orpheus and Eurydice
A cultural movement in which people are members of a global community... a person is a "citizen of the world"
The literary art of diminishing the subject by making it ridiculous and evoking toward it attitudes of contempt
Style of writing where figures are symbolic of larger issues
This kind of literature is designed to instruct, to teach
Concerned with humanity's interactions with the natural world and its consequences
Hardin County, Kentucky
16th President and the most popular of all time.
A House Divided: Speech Delivered at Springfield, Illinois at the Close of the Republican State Convention, June 16, 1858
He argued against southern secession. He thought there should be more regulation dealing with new territories deciding if they are slave/free states. He argues that pro-slavery parties are forcibly converting more and more of the nation for themselves, leaving less to the free states. Argues that both the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution argue for freedom, not slavery.
Address Delivered at the Dedication of the Cemetery at Gettysburg, November 19, 1863
He commemorated the most devastating battle of the Civil War.
Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865
Slavery in Massachusetts
Follows much of the same themes of Resistance to Civil Government
A Plea for Captain John Brown
John Brown led a raid of the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He intended to arm slaves with weapons from the arsenal, but the attack failed. Within 36 hours, all of Brown's men were killed or captured by local farmers, militiamen, and U.S. Marines led by Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried for treason, and was hung.
Thoreau's "Plea for Captain John Brown" is uncompromising in its defense of him
Talbot County, Maryland
He believed that the new territories should be allowed to decided for themselves whether to enter the nation as slave or free state.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself Chapter 1-2
He doesn't know the year he was born because most slaves weren't allowed to know their age. He is separated from his mother soon after birth. His mother dies when he is around 7 and he is barely affected by the news. His father is a white man. He talks about mixed slaves. His first master is Captain Anthony and the Captain's overseer is Mr. Plummer (drunk and cruel man who carries a whip and often uses it). The Captain is cruel as well, often whip Douglass Aunt, sometimes Douglass would watch it happen.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself Chapter 3-4
He is dealing with Colonel Lloyd's home plantation. He has a garden with fruit and put a fence around it with tar on it. Any slave caught with tar on them gets whipped for trying to eat his fruit. Colonel Lloyd's wealth is so great he has never even seen some of the hundreds of slaves he owns. Mr. Austin Gore is cunning and cruel to the slaves as well. Mr. Gore whipped a slave named Demby, who went to the creek afterwards to soothe the pain. Mr. Gore told him to get out and when he refused he shot Demby. He was never investigated for this. There are many other cases of this with other slave owners as well.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself Chapter 5-6
As a child Douglass is unable to work in the fields. Many time he would accompany Colonel's grandson, Daniel, on hunting trips as a servant. Daniel eventually becomes attached to Douglass. Around age 7 or 8 he is selected to go and live with Captain Anthony's son-in-law's brother Hugh Auld. He is happy about this and feels no sense of loss, family ties... New family is much more kind at first, the wife has never had a slave to does not treat him as bad as he once was treated. Eventually that changes thought and she becomes cruel as well. When he first arrived the wife started to teach him a few words and the alphabet. When Hugh found out he told her to stop!
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself Chapter 7-8
He lives in Hugh's household for about 7 years. During this time he learns how to read and write. He gave bread to poor local boys in exchange for reading lessons. Once he understands the injustice of slavery because he can read about it but realizes he still can do nothing about it he enters a period of nearly suicidal despair. One day he helps two sailors without being asked. When they realize he will be a slave forever they encourage him run away to the North. Douglas says nothing for fear of being tricked. When Captain Anthony dies he has to return to the plantation for evaluation. It is humiliating; they are inspected alongside livestock. Luckily he is sent back to Baltimore. He eventually is taken away from his that Auld family and sent to Thomas Auld.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself Chapter 9-10
Thomas does not gives slaves enough food and is a cruel master. Douglass is lent to Edward Covey for one year to be "broken" into a well behaved slave. He works in the fields at Covey's for the first time in his life. Douglass gets whipped weekly here. He looses his spirit, intellect, desire to learn, natural cheerfulness... Douglas goes to Auld's and complains about Covey but is sent back to him anyway to finish out his year. On his way back he hides from Covey and his whip and runs into Sandy Jenkins (slave traveling to home of his free wife). He invites Douglass to come along. He does not. The next time Covey attacks Douglass, Douglass grabs him by the throat. They fight for two hours. Covey never touches him again. This causes Douglass to regain his spirit and his resolve to be free. He is sent to Mr. Freeland who is quick tempered but more fair. Douglass starts to educate other slaves. He comes up with an escape plan with a few others but is caught. They are tied up and sent to Thomas Auld's house. The men are placed in jail. Thomas sends Auld back to Hugh. He starts working on a ship gets jumped by 4 white men but can't do anything about it.
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Written by Himself Chapter 11
He ask if he can find his own work and Hugh grants him permission as long as he gets a generous amount of the money he makes. Finally escapes. Makes it to New York City. Scared to be in a new place with no money, shelter, food, friends, family... A free black man named David Ruggles takes in Douglass. He gets married works eventually speaks to whites about slavery at a convention.
From My Bondage and My Freedom
New York City, New York
He worked several jobs in his late teens to try and help his family. By 21 he was poor and desperate so he joined a whaling ship and hated it. He jumped ship and lived a month with a cannibal culture. He rejoined an Australian whaling ship and was miserable there too. He returned to Boston when he was 25 and made a living writing about shipping experiences.
Moby Dick Chapter 1
Ishmael explains his decision to go to sea.
He went to sea because he was feeling a "damp, drizzly November in [his] soul" and craved adventure.
Moby Dick Chapter 2
Ishmael spends some time in New Bedford.
He travels from NY to New Bedford, MA. He wanders into an inn, Spouter-Inn, where he spends a few nights.
Moby Dick Chapter 3
Ishmael stays the night at the Spouter Inn, where he encounters Queequeg.
At the inn he has to share a room with Queequeg. Ishmael passes the evening in the war with a wild set of marines waiting for Queenqueg to arrive.
Moby Dick Chapter 4
Ishmael takes note of Queequeg's customs and behavior.
Ishmael marvel at the "savage's understanding of civilized manners."
Moby Dick Chapter 10
Ishmael embraces Queequeg and his strange customs.
He develops respect for Queenqueg and the two become friendly. Queenqueg gives him 1/2 of his belongings, they continue to share a bed, and have many long chats.
Moby Dick Chapter 11
Qureequeg recounts the story of his life.
Moby Dick Chapter 12
Queequeg's tale is concluded. Ishmael and Queequeg seek employment at sea.
Queequeg is a native of South Pacific island called Kokovoko. When a whaling ship stopped at Kokovoko he sought passage but was denied a job, so he stowed away. After persistence he was taken on as a whaler and is now a skilled harpooner. He can never go back even though he would be kind because of his interaction with Christianity.
Moby Dick Chapter 13
Ishmael and Queequeg make their way to Nantucket.
On the ferry Queequeg wants to through a man overboard, but is scolded by the captain. One the ropes broke and the man goes over board. Queequeg secures the rope/ferry then jumps overboard for the man. He wins everyone respect by doing this.
Moby Dick Chapter 19
Ishmael and Queequeg receive a warning about Ahab.
After they both sign papers they run into a man named Elijah, a prophet (?) who drops references to several frightening incidents involving Ahab. The men disregard his warnings.
Moby Dick Chapter 20
Rumors of Ahab abound, but the Captain is yet to be seen.
Ahab is recovering from the loss of his leg.
Moby Dick Chapter 21
The Pequod prepares to depart.
Ismael and Queequeg encounter Elijah again. Ismael see's people boarding the ship and Elijah knows this. But when the men get on the ship there is only one old sailor.
Moby Dick Chapter 22
The ship is navigated out to sea.
Moby Dick Chapter 26
Ishmael meets the first mate, Starbuck.
Starbuck believes it is rational and necessary to fear whales. He is seen as "careful" by the other shipmates when used to describe a whaler.
Moby Dick Chapter 27
Ishmael gives a description of the second mate, Stubb.
Stubb is cool under pressure and possesses good humor.
Flask is short, stocky, and has a confrontational attitude.
Moby Dick Chapter 28
Captain Ahab finally makes an appearance.
Ahab appears strong and willful. His encounter with Moby Dick has scarred him though. He is missing a leg and has a scar down one side of his face.
Moby Dick Chapter 29
Ahab's temper flares.
Ahab seems psychologically troubled. He maintains a total dictatorship on board. Stubb complains about Ahab's pacing (because the sound of his peg leg echoes) and Ahab advances on him. Stubb retreats.
Moby Dick Chapter 30
Ahab continues to become more agitated.
Smoking no longer soothes Ahab. He hurls his pipe overboard and resumes packing the ship deck.