SOC 316 Quiz 1-10

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In order to validate theory, social scientific research must be:
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The Utilitarians of the 19th century:Wanted a pragmatic approach to government focused on the greatest good for the greatest number of people.Enlightenment thinkers generally thought that the condition of society was:Improvable through science and reason.Bentham advised that, if we wish to deter crime, we should institute a system in which punishments are:Swift, certain and proportional.Weber's principle of methodological individualism is premised on:Explaining purposive social action.Weber made which of the following arguments concerning orientations to action:Both material interests and values motivate purposive (intentional) action.For Weber, a motive can be described as:Subjective understanding that guides social action.In Weber's methodology of the social sciences an ideal type isan analytical construct.In Weber's thought, which basic factor drives social change?Competition.Homans posits: "Interaction between people is an exchange of goods, material and nonmaterial". A logical implication of this is that:people that voluntarily interact with each other frequently do so because they feel rewarded.According to Homan's behaviorism, people respond favorably to rewards of desired goods. But this response is not unlimited. Over time or in large volumes individuals experiencesatiation.Historians describe the Industrial Revolution as a period during which economic productivity was dramatically increased by:Rational division of labor and new technologies.According to Adam Smith, the mechanism propelling the expanding division of labor in a capitalist economy is:Free economic competition.Which of the following statements accurately compares Adam Smith and Thomas Hobbes?They disagree about the likely effects of unleashing peoples' economic self-interest.Which of the following assumptions does Smith make in regard to human nature?Humans are inclined to "truck and barter" to get what they want.According to Durkheim, the kind of social solidarity based on the likeness of group members is called:Mechanical.Which of the following theorists does NOT rely upon some version of a purposive, rational individual in his theoretical explanations?DurkheimHow does Durkheim explain the historical shift from mechanical forms of solidarity to organic solidarity in some societies?Increasing population density stimulates an expanding division of labor, allowing a shift from mechanical to organic solidarity.According to Smith, factory production is more efficient than traditional craft production because labor can be:Combined and specialized.When Utilitarians evoked the image of an "invisible hand" that would create social order they meant:The spontaneous effect of each individual pursuing his/her self-interest.The kind of social solidarity based on the interdependence of group members when the division of labor is advanced is called:Organic.Goffman's dramaturgical theory of self-identity relies heavily on the metaphor of:stage performance.For Goffman, behavior in public settings congruent with one's social status is a demonstration of the proper:demeanor.Goffman's concept of face work refers to:attempts by actors to manage their self presentation.If members of a status "team" conspire to help a fellow actor save face in an unpleasant, difficult or embarrassing social situation, it is probably because people prefer:to stabilize relations in their status group.According to Foucault, the maintenance of power became more certain in modern societies through pervasive and efficient means of:Discipline.Foucault's Theory of Discipline and Elias' Theory of Civilization agree on which of the following?The rise of the centralized state shifted the focus of power from external social control to internal discipline.One of Weber's assertions about social order is that anyone in a position of domination has a very strong incentive to achieve legitimacy since that makes his/her rule:Less costly and more readily enforceable.To say that a social order is legitimate means that it:has achieved at least some willing submission among its subjects.In which of Weber's type of legitimate domination would the leader have the greatest discretion to rule as he/she pleased?Charismatic.Compared with pre-modern empires, Giddens might argue that expanding apparatuses of bureaucratic governance have allowed modern nation-states substantially to increase their:intensity of rule.According to Durkheim, a religion must contain which of the following:Rituals.Which of the following would Durkheim regard as the most important function of religious behavior?It produces communally integrative emotions.Which of the following assertions is NOT consistent with Durkheim's theory of moral order?Crime is only a reflection of economic struggle.According to Durkheim, the fundamental and necessary components of religion include:A belief system, rituals, and a moral community.Durkheim refers to the state of heightened emotion and awareness that is experienced in group rituals and events as ____________ .collective effervescenceFor Durkheim, religion can be seen as an important and persistent social fact because:All of the other answers are reasons why religion is an important and persistent social fact. (Symbols of the sacred facilitate communication. Religion helps to bind people together beyond immediate ties of kinship. Through rituals, the group is able to articulate and find meaning. The idea of the sacred constitutes and reinforces social order)To characterize a religious practice or symbol as set apart from everyday experiences and revered is reminiscent of Durkheim's distinction between the _________ and_________.sacred; profaneThe author Franz Kafka related the following parable: "Leopards break into the temple and drink to the dregs what is in the sacrificial pitchers; this is repeated over and over again; finally it can be calculated in advance and it becomes part of the ceremony." From a Durkheimian perspective, one could say that the invasion of the leopards has become:Ritually incorporated into the social life of the group.Which of the following is NOT an outcome of Randall Collins' theory of interaction ritual chains?In-group conflict.Following from the logic of Durkheim's theory of religion, religious participation produces moral consensus in a group by fostering:Collective conscience.Which of the following statements DOES NOT conform to the logic of Blau's exchange theory?Norms of distributive justice can only arise from exchange between like partners.Which of the following factors would best help us understand how power differentials arise from exchange relationships?The willingness of actors to accept diffuse obligations when they cannot repay with a like good.According to Blau, repeated exchange tends to produce trust through the expectation of:Reciprocity.Blau emphasizes that social exchange is different than economic exchange because:All of the other answers are reasons why social exchange differs from economic exchange. (value of goods is difficult to specify, intrinsic rewards are hard to price, terms of repayment are diffuse, and social exchange generates broad mutual obligations)If people prefer to engage in social exchange among equals, what leads them to engage in exchange with partners outside of their status group?Need for diverse goods from unlike actors.Levi-Strauss suggests that under some conditions social exchange can foster conflict rather than cooperation. Which of the following would be one of those conditions?There is no third-party enforcement to turn to if exchange agreements are violated.In the 1844 Manuscripts, Marx makes which of the following assumptions in regard to human nature?Humans are generally cooperative and creative.Marx argued that all the injustices of capitalist societies come from a single root cause:Private property.Following Marx, the sentiment that diamonds connote eternal love, passion, constancy, and romance might be best understood as an example of which of the following?The fetishism of commodities.What are the chief claims of Marx's theory of the value commodities?The labour process determines the value of commodities.According to the Communist Manifesto the basic difference between capitalism and socialism is:The ownership of the means of production.When Marx observed, "The ruling ideas are nothing more than the ideal expression of the dominant material relationships" he meant that such ideas are:Ideological justifications for class domination.Which of the following did Marx and Engels see as creating necessary conditions for the emergence of industrial capitalism in Europe?All of the other answers were necessary conditions for the breakthrough to industrial capitalism.Why did Marx think that industrial capitalism would eventually have a global reach?Western imperialism would destroy traditional societies.The fact that advanced industrial societies still embrace capitalism more than 150 years after the publication of the Communist Manifesto suggest that Marx and Engel's specific propositions in that text are not:externally valid.Horkheimer and Adorno saw the culture industry as the mystifying force that fostered obedience, while Marx emphasized ___________ and Foucault highlighted _____________.religion; scientific discourse.Marx and Engels depict how capitalism makes socialist revolution inevitable. Their theory identifies which general cause?Intensifying class conflict that radicalizes workers and undermines the bourgeois social order.Marx and Engels predicted that proletarian revolution would occur in the most economically advanced societies. In which of the following societies did Marxist-inspired revolutionaries actually seize power:Cuba.Which of the following is true of Marx's thought?Marx believed that social change occurred through class conflict.Which of the following comparisons can be made:Both Marx and Durkheim saw religion in terms of social relations and effects.In Marx's fragment "Classes", he identifies two factors that primarily determine class position. What are these two dimensions?Property and productivity.In the 19th century, Marx claimed that capitalist societies would inevitably veer toward a dual class structure. Drawing from the lecture and the readings, which of the following is an acceptable critique of Marx's claim:Marx failed to account for social differentiation.Consider the following description of the traditional, early modern Ottoman economy in the Near East: In the narrow sense only adherents of Islam are part of the bazaar [i.e., marketplace] milieu. Jews and Christians are present in the bazaars, of course, to carry out the activities prohibited or frowned upon by Islam. Armenian Christians were specialized in the manufacture and sale of musical instruments; the moneylenders and gold- and silversmiths were Jews. Christians as well as Jews dominated the production and sale of alcoholic beverages... They were tolerated outsiders, with whom believers interacted in the economic but not, as a rule, the social sphere (Riesebrodt 1993: 153). Following Weber, one can say that economic roles in this society were heavily influenced by:Ascribed status group membership.Which of the following theorists argued that politics, history, and ideology could all be reduced to the results of economic forces?MarxWhereas class refers to material resources and politics refers to power, what does Weber's concept of status refer to?social honorFollowing our discussion of Weber, a rationalized, achievement-based system for generating social status differences can be described as:meritocracy.Which of the following best completes the sentence? Weber considered social stratification in modern capitalist society to be...based partially on social status and political power.Complete the sentence: Pierre Bourdieu argues that social inequality in contemporary industrial societies reflects...differing positions in relation to cultural, social and economic capital.Which of the following would be a member of the "intermediary classes" according to Marx?All of the other occupations would be members of the intermediary classes.Given the differences in the economic theories of socialism and capitalism, which of these would probably be the best indicator of how influential socialism is in modern industrial democracies?The extent of government involvement in the economy.For Olson, the free-rider problem is most likely to be overcome under certain conditions. Which of the following conditions would be prone to motivate people to contribute to collective action?Selective incentives can be provided to reward contributors.Following from Olson's logic, we might expect that the U.S. government favors having workers' income taxes deducted directly from their paychecks because:Public projects pose social dilemmas.Following from our discussion of Olson, which of the following would be a readily excludable good?Club membership.Following Cook, Hardin and Levi, social obligations are more likely to be binding when a person ispart of a closed group.Rational-choice theorists like Hechter argue that norms are only effective under certain circumstances. Which of the following circumstances would they wish to exclude?when norms are enforced only by subjective morality.According to Cook, Hardin and Levi, under which of the following conditions would a society be most reliant on trust to achieve cooperation?When entry into groups is fluid and populations are large.For Weber, which was an ideological factor in the rise of industrial capitalism in Western Europe?ProtestantismAccording to Weber, which was as an unintentional consequence of the Protestant Reformation?New attitudes justifying hard work and profit taking.Following Weber's explanation for the rise of industrial capitalism in Europe, when the co-incidence of several factors at the same moment results in historical transformation we can refer to this as:Multi-causal conjuncture.According to Weber, competitive entrepreneurs thought that the Protestant ethic justified paying workers low wages because this would:Discourage workers from engaging in sinful and wasteful behaviors.Both Weber and Simmel offer __________ as a key _______ that explains how groups maintain their coherence and identity.Social closure, mechanismFollowing Georg Simmel's logic, the opportunity for individuality would tend to be limited when:All of the other answers explain why individuality is constrained.When members of subordinated groups cannot gain positive recognition from members of advantaged status groups, but are regarded firstly as social problems, DuBois argues that the social-self suffers from disabling:double-consciousness.Orlando Patterson argues that the black-white racial dichotomy in America is of declining salience for all of the following reasons except:Social scientists, journalists, and other educated professionals have abandoned race thinking.Following Kant and Habermas, periodicals, journals, newspapers, television news, and the internet can all be regarded media thatConstitute a public sphere in between private citizens and affairs of state.For Tocqueville, which of the following does NOT tend to contribute to the creation of effective democratic government:Centralized governments that assume all responsibility for the production of public goods.Which of the following statements contradicts Alexis de Tocqueville's thinking in Democracy in America:He believed that intellectuals should rule because common people are incapable of self-government.According to Habermas, what force might help to prevent the deformation of the public sphere?The mobilization of social movements voicing the lifeworld concerns of common people.Based on the logic of Simmel's theory of groups, we might expect that the greatest degree of binding group solidarity would be found where:The social categories people occupy and the social networks they form are almost completely congruent.Framed in the terms of the scientific method of knowing, sociological theory can be best thought of as specific concepts that yieldgeneral explanations of observable phenomena in social life.