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Biology

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Metric
Science uses which system to measure items?
Living things
Biology is the study of ______________.
Reproduce
All living things __________ to make more of themselves.
Response
Living things adjust to a stimulus by a ______________.
Observing
Questions arise from individuals __________ the world around them.
Ethics
The study of standards for what is right and wrong is called ______.
Data
Information gathered through experimentation.
Experiment
A structured procedure for collecting information to test a hypothesis is called an _______.
Technology
Applying science to the needs and problems of our society is called ________.
Theory
A scientific explanation that's been tested over time is a _________.
Control Group
The part of a science experiment that's kept the same.
Scientific Method
Steps used in science that gathers information, tests hypothesis, and solve problems is called
Hypothesis
A testable explanation for a question or problem
Quantitative research
Research that's reported in numerical form with charts and graphs.
Experiment
A test of a hypothesis
Polymers
Carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins are all large molecules called _____________.
Organic
All carbon compounds are called ___________________.
Four
Carbon atoms must share ____________ electrons to be stable
Chemical reaction
Burning of paper is an example of a ______________ reaction.
Compound
Two or more elements chemically bonding together is called a _____________.
Nucleus
Protons and neutrons are located in the __________ of an atom.
Electron Clouds
Electrons move about the nucleus in regions called ____________.
Amino acids
Proteins are made up of __________________.
Polarity
Water can dissolve many compounds because of its
Cells
All living things are made up of _________.
Animals cells
Which type of cells do not have a cell wall?
Dynamic Equilibrium
When diffusion slow down and stops __________ is reached.
Concentration gradient
Diffusion continues until there is no ____________.
Nitrogen
Proteins contain what element that fats and carbohydrates don't have?
2
The first electron energy level can contain a maximum of ______ electrons
less
Acids have a pH _______ than seven.
double
Unsaturated fats contain ________ bonds
Base
pH of 13 is considered a strong ____________.
Proteins
Enzymes in the human body are ___________.
gain
Non-metals like chlorine typically will _________ electrons to become stable.
4
N₂O₂ has how many total atoms?
Cell Theory
all life is made of cells which are the basic units of life and must come from preexisting cells is called the ________.
Hooke
First to describe cells
Electron Microscope
The type of microscope which has the greatest magnification
Eukaryotic cells
A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles is termed ____________.
Lipid bilayer
The cell membrane is made up of a ________________.
Hypertonic
Water moves out of a cell when the cell is placed in a ________ solution like sugar water.
Hypotonic
Water moves into a cell when the cell is placed in a _________ solution.
Active Transport
When a cell moves particles from an area of lesser concentration to greater concentration it uses ________.
Osmosis
Water leaving or entering a cell does so through a process known as __________.
Plasma membrane
What part of a cell maintains the cells homeostasis?
Proteins
A gene is a segment of DNA that controls the production of ________.
Cancer
Viruses, environmental influences and radiation are examples of things that can cause _________.
Series of enzymes
What monitors the cell's cycle from phase to phase?
Metaphase
What phase is identified by chromosomes lining up along the cell's mid-line?
Interphase
The longest phase of the cell's cycle.
Chloroplast
Chlorophyll is located in what organelle?
Chlorophyll
Green pigment that traps light energy is called ____________.
energy
In order for your body to undergo reactions and normal body function, it requires _____.
Glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) and Oxygen (O₂)
What are the two products of photosynthesis?
Respiration
The process which burns glucose to produce energy.
Crossing over
When parts of homologous chromatids exchange places with one another which creates genetic recombinations.
Punnett Square
A device used to show the offspring combinations of two parents.
Heterozygous
Two alleles; one dominant and one recessive is said to be ______.
Law of Segregation
Mendel's law that states only one factor from each parent is passed to the offspring is called _______.
Heredity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called __________.
Diploid
A cell containing the full set (2) alleles for each trait is said to be _____.
Egg
The gamete produced by the mother.
50%
The percent chance a couple will always have a boy is _______.
Phenotype
Looking at the physical features of a dog will provide the dog's ________.
Meiosis
What cell division reduces the number of chromosomes by 1/2?
Fertilization
The process of a sperm uniting with an egg is called __________.
Alleles
Alternate forms of a gene are called ______________.
cytosine
Guanine always bonds to what nitrogen base?
Deletion
When a portion of a chromosome is missing or breaks off.
Double Helix
The shape of the DNA molecule.
Skin cancer
What could be one result of mutated skin cells of a person?
Nitrogen Bases
When DNA is copied, these pair up to form a new strand.
Nucleotide
Is made up of one sugar, base and a phosphate group.
Deoxyribose
The sugar of a DNA molecule.
Ribose
The sugar of a RNA molecule.
Uracil
Replaces the Thymine in an RNA molecule.
Transcription
Process which forms Messenger RNA
Cell, nucleus, chromosome, DNA, nucleotide
Put in order from largest to smallest: DNA, nucleotide, cell, chromosome, nucleus
Nitrogen bases
What part of the DNA molecule gets copied during transcription?
Translation
The dropping off of amino acids for protein assembly is called ______.
Frameshift
When a DNA segment has an added or lost nitrogen base it's called a _________ mutation.
Incomplete Dominant
Pink flowers from red and white parent combination shows the trait is ____.
Sex Chromosomes
The 23rd set of chromosomes is called ______.
XX
Males have XY chromosomes and females have sex chromosomes called _____.
Aerobic
The most efficient type of respiration is ______.
Lysosome
Sac of digestive enzymes
Vacuole
Storage sacs
Mitochondria
Power-house of the cell (converts larger molecules into ATP for energy use)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Folded membrane where reactions occur
Chromatin
Thin strands of DNA
Cell Membrane
Boundary of the cell
Cilia
Short hair-like; used for movement
Nucleus
Control Center of Cell
Choroplast
Converts light energy to chemical energy
Interphase
Phase the cell spends most of it's time in
Metaphase
Chromosomes line up along midline
Prophase
Cell begins to undergo Mitosis by coiling up chromosomes
Anaphase
Chromatids separate at the centromere
Telophase
Two new cells form
Mitosis
Division of body cells
Meiosis
Division of cells that will form gametes
Protein synthesis
Putting amino acids together
Photosynthesis
Converting light energy into glucose
Mendel
Known as Father of Genetics
arrangement of atoms
Compounds with the same chemical formula will differ in ________________
isotopes
Carbon-12 carbon-13 carbon-14 are examples of ___________
selective permeability
The cell's cytoplasm can differ from the cell's surroundings due to the cell membrane's _________________
where the person lives
Cancer rates for people will follow according to the country ____________
centromere
Chromatids of a chromosome attach to spindle fibers by the ___________
organ system
Which term is most complex: cell, organ system, organ or tissue?
ATP
The energy molecule that cells use is called _________________
photosynthesis
The MAKING of a glucose molecule occurs through the process called _________
glycolysis
The first step in BREAKING DOWN a glucose molecule
gametes
The parent's ________________ are written on the top and side of a punnett square
meiosis
Reducing 78 chromosomes to 39 is the result of ___________
deoxyribose sugar
The backbone of a DNA molecule is made up of a phosphate
translocation
The process of a part of a chromosome breaking off and is added to a different chromosome is called _____________
replication
The process of DNA copying itself is called ___________________
point mutation
A DNA segment that's changed from CAT to GAT while being copied is called
sex-linked
Royal hemophilia is the result of _____________ inheritance
Codominant
Blood types are the result of ______________ inheritance
recessive alleles
Most human genetic disorders are caused by
ribosome
the site of protein synthesis
respiration
the breakdown of glucose to usable energy
flagella
long whip-like extension of the cell used for movement
cytoplasm
jelly-like matrix that suspends organelles
characteristics of living things
Ability to reproduce, high level of organization, growth, adaptation, responding to stimuli and requiring energy are all examples of
meter
The metric base unit for length is
gram
The metric unit commonly used for mass is _____ for small items and kilogram for heavier items.
liter
The metric unit for volume is
dependent variable
The measured outcome of an experiment
independent variable
The variable being tested in an experiment
polarity
water has slight charges on its ends due to unequal sharing of electrons causing a property called
hydrogen bonds
The attraction of a hydrogen atom of one water molecule to an oxygen atom of another water molecule forms
physical
Dissolving substances is a ___________ change since you can achieve the solid again by boiling the liquid
neutrons
Isotopes are the same atoms with different numbers of
acid
A substance that forms hydrogen ions in water is an
ionic
metals and nonmetals form __________ compounds
covalent
nonmetals form ___________ compounds with other nonmetals
Leeuwenhoek
Known as the Father of Microscopy
compound light
micrscope containing two lenses and used in common high school labs
cell membrane cytoplasm and nucelus
The three main parts of a cell
adenosine triphosphate
What does ATP stand for?
substrates
Enzymes attach to molecules called __________that undergo chemical reactions in the body
carbon dioxide + water + light yeilds glucose and oxygen
The word equation for photosynthesis
photosynthesis
The light reaction and calvin cycle are two parts to ________________
aerobic respiration
glycolysis, krebs and electron transport chain are all steps in
fermentation
__________ occurs after glycolysis if oxygen is absent
36
total net ATP molecules produced from one glucose molecule during aerboic respiration
pyruvic acid
During the first step of respiration, glucose is broken down into
cancer
uncontrolled division of cells creates a tumor that can spread resulting in
tetrads
During prophase I of Meiosis, homologous chromosomes (4 chromatids) which come together are called ___________
synapsis
The actual moving of homologous chromosomes to pair up during prophase I is called
metaphase I
The phase of meiosis when homologous chromosomes line up in two lines along the mid-line of the cell is called
anaphase II
The phase of meiosis when chromatids separate from each other
telophase II
The phase of meiosis when 4 haploid cells form is called
polar bodies
Meiosis produces 4 sperm or 1 egg and 3 _________.
mRNA
Type of RNA that is a blue print of the DNA molecule which leaves the nucleus during protein synthesis
tRNA
Clover shaped RNA that picks up amino acids for transport to the ribosome
rRNA
A globular RNA that is combined with special protein that makes up a ribosome
Cytosine
Guanine base binds to _________
Adenine
_____________ bonds to thymine on a DNA molecule or uracil on RNA.
Cellulose
Component of the cell wall of plants
Leaf
Primary part of the plant used for photosynthesis
Monocot
Parallel leaf venation
Flower
Reproductive part of an anthophyte
Moist environment
Necessary to transport sperm and for diffusion of water and nutrients in nonvascular plants
Sclerenchyma
Type of plant cell with thick, rigid cell walls
Ethylene gas
Hormone which helps ripen fruits
Complete Flower
Contains both stamen (male) and pistil (female) parts
Prothallus
Fern spore germinates into a heart-shaped structure
Wind
Seed dispersal mechanism using hairy plumes
Animal fur
Seed dispersal mechanism using hooks and barbs
Netted veins
Dicot leaf has this venation
Phloem
Transports sugars down a plant from the leaves
Phototropism
Plant's response to light
Archegonia
Female reproductive part of a nonvascular plant
Annuals
Anthophyte that lives for only one year
Structures of a leaf
Parenchyma cells, stomata, epidermis, veins, guard cells
Conifers
Plant type that has naked seeds
Anthophytes
Flowering plants with enclosed seeds and fruit
Bilateral Symmetry
Symmetry of worms, butterflies and man
One
Number of body segments of a tick
Two
Number of body segments of a spider
Three
Number of body segments of insects
Complete Metamorphosis
Egg, larve, pupa, adult
Incomplete Metamorphosis
Egg, nymph adult
Six
Number of walking legs of insects
Eight
Number of walking legs of spider
Trichina Worms
Undercooked pork may contain
Nematocysts
stinging cells that discharge when tentacles are touched
Jointed appendages
Most distinguishing characteristics of arthropods
Stinging tentacles
Cnidarians capture food with
Molt
Process of shedding exoskeleton while new one grows beneath old on
Gills
Aquatic arthropods breathe using these
Filter feed
Sponges and other sessile organisms feed by what means?
Coral
Group of Cnidarians that provide food, shelter for other organisms
Antennae
Part of insect that senses vibrations, food, and pheremones
Planarian
Flat worm with a pharynx
Radial
Symmetry of sea star and sea urchin
fish
Vertebrate with a 2- chambered heart
test chemicals in air
reason snakes flick out their tongues
Feathers
Distinguishing characteristic of birds
Teeth
Mammals are classified by their
Tympanic Membrane
Amphibians organ to sense vibrations from water or air
Placental
Mammal type that fully develops in uterus with umbilical cord
Lamprey and Hagfish
Two fish that lack jaws
Osteichthyes
Class of bony fish
Amphibians
Vertebrate characterized with thin, moist skin
Jacobson's organ
Sense organ on snake's roof of mouth which detects airborne chemicals
Lateral line
Fish sense organ which detects vibrations and movement in the water
Platypus and Echidna
Two examples of egg laying Monotremes
Australia
Most marsupials are located here
Smooth
Muscle type of internal organs
Conserves body heat
Main advantage of hair
smell, sound, touch
Three ways animals communicate
Imprinting
Attachment behavior at a critical time in life
Trial and Error
Behavior where an animal receives a reward
Involuntary
Muscle contractions that are not controlled
Territorial behavior
type of behavior in which an animal protects his home area
Pheromone
Chemical animal communicates with
circadian rhythm
24-hour cycle of an animal
Pavlov
Biologist who demonstrated conditioning in dogs
Aggression
Animal behavior where they are showing agitation toward another
Cardiac
Heart muscle type
Lichen
Mutual relationship between a fungus and algae
Mycorrhizae
Mutual relationship between fungus and plant roots
Shape
Bacteria is identified by their
Conjugation
Sexual reproduction in bacteria exchanging genetic information
Bacteriophage
Virus that infects bacterial cells
Nonliving
Viruses are classified as
Penicillin
Causes holes in cell walls of bacteria killing them
Dinoflagellates
plant-like protist that causes red tide
sexual spores
Fungus is classified by their
Decomposers
Fungi and bacteria are considered this since they can transform complex molecules into simpler raw materials
Flagellate
Protozoan with a whip-like tail
Cilia
Short hair-like structures on a paramecium
Diatoms
Plant-like Protist made of various shells of silica
Protista
Kingdom of Eukaryotes, multi or unicellular includes algae and protozoans
Protozoan
Animal-like protist
Algae
Plant-like protist
Asexual
Reproduction that produces identical daughter cells as the parent cell. (binary fission and budding)
Aristotle
First to propose a taxonomic system
Scientific Name
Composed of genus and species
binomial nomenclature
A two word naming system
Latin
Language used for scientific names
Taxonomy
Science of grouping and naming organisms
Classification
Placing of information or objects into groups based on similarities
Dichotomous Key
step by step approach to identify an organism using a series of paired descriptions
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
7 Levels of Classification in order
Animalia
Kingdom of insects, worms, sponges and elephants
Genus
First word of the scientific name
Plantae
Kingdom of mosses, conifers and flowering plants
Fungi
Kingdom of mushrooms, puffballs and yeast
Archeabacteria and Eubacteria
Two kingdoms of prokaryotic cells
Protista
Kingdom of plant-like (algae) and animal-like (protozoans) organisms
Animalia
Kingdom of all eukaryotic, heterotrophic, multicellular organisms
Plantae
Kingdom of all autotrophic and multicellular organisms
H, methane, ammonia, and water vapor
Evolutionary belief of gasses in the primitive atmosphere
small pools of amino acids
1950 Evolutionary belief where life came from
Spontaneous Generation
Widely accepted view of life coming from nothing before Biogenesis was accepted
Cenozoic
Evolutionary Era when Human were thought to "evolve"
4.6 Billion Years
Evolutionary time line when earth was supposedly formed
Cyanobacteria
Evolutionary viewpoint on first group of organisms to evolve
Urey and Miller
Scientists who tried to conduct an experiment to prove life came from earth's ancient conditions
Darwin
Founder of modern evolution theory
Prosimians
Group of lemurs and tarsiers
Homologous Structures
Evolutionary idea that the wing of a bat is common to the arm of a human
Vestigial Organs
The name of the Evolutionary idea that some organs no longer function
Camouflage
The ability an animal has to blend in with it's surroundings
Mimicry
Ability of an animal to look like another more harmful animal
Natural Selection
Evolution idea that nature selects which characteristics will continue in an animal population
Mutations
The mechanism by which evolutionist believe species change over time
Range of Tolerance
Animals ability to withstand environmental fluctuations
Autotrophs
Organisms that can convert light into chemical energy
Ovary
Organ which produces the female egg
Testis
Organ which produces the male sperm
Uterus
Female organ where a fetus develops
Bacteria
Gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia are all caused by
Tail, head, mitochondria
Three parts of the male sperm
Alveoli
Small sacs of the lungs where gas exchange takes place
Lymphatic
Body system that helps recover body fluids and returns it to the blood
Invasive species
Species not native to a given area
Cocaine
Drug that causes brain neurotransmitter levels to increase
Cones
Part of the retina that allows you to see color
Central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Kidneys
Organs that collect waste from cells and maintains the bodies homeostasis
Sensory neurons
Carries impulses from environment to brain/spinal cord
Motor neurons
Carries impulses from brain/spinal cord to muscles
Puberty
Menstrual cycle begins during the stage
Viruses
Causes genital herpes, warts and AIDS
HIV
virus which weakens the immune system
Endocrine System
System which produces hormones for the body
Depressant
Type of drug which slows down and reduces nervous system activity
Purple
Color of Gram positive stained bacteria
Pink
Color of Gram negative stained bacteria
Intelligent Design
Theory which suggests all life is complex and best explained by an intelligent cause
Melanin
Pigment that causes various shade of skin color
Antediluvian
Term used to refer to "before the flood"
Yom
Hebrew word used for "day" typically written for describing a 24 hour period
Sin
Biblical understanding of the cause of death, disease, blood shed
2 Timothy 3: 16-17
"All scripture is God breathed, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness..."
Romans 5:12
"by one man sin entered the world, and death by sin..."
Europe
Shem's descendants migrated to this area
Africa
Ham's descendants migrated to this area
Asia
Japheth's descendants migrated to this area
Tower of Babel dispersion
What Biblical event caused smaller population sizes and disrupted genetic equilibrium
.2%
The percent difference of any two people in the world
over hunting and harsh environmental conditions
Possible reasons for dinosaurs being extent
Job
Book of the Bible that contains descriptions of animals similar to dinosaurs
Micro-evolution
Changes in animals that are limited to the species gene pool
Macro-evolution
Changes in animals that require beneficial mutations involving addition of new information into the DNA
Presuppositions
Initial starting belief of a person that determines their viewpoint concerning the origin of life
Habitat Loss
Greatest threat to animal diversity
Invasive species
Animals considered not native to an area they inhabit
Root
Part of plant that functions in absorption of water and minerals and anchors the plant
Round
Hook, Pin, and Heart worms are all considered ___________ worms.
Segmented
Leech and earthworms are ___________ worms.
Alternation of Generations
Life cycle of organisms that switch from asexual to sexual reproduction
Archaebacteria
Kingdom of bacteria that live in extreme environments
Habitat fragmentation
Building a road in the middle of an ecosystem is an example of...
Niche
A role an organism has in an environment...like being a predator
Energy
_________ decreases as you move from one trophic level to the next
Habitat
Where an organism lives...
Mutualism
A symbiotic relationship when both organisms benefit from the relationship...
Older fossils are at the bottom
An evolutionary assumption using the fossil record to prove how old a fossil is.
sperm
Pollen of a plant contains ______________.
photosynthesis
Leaves often have a large surface area which enhances the plants ability to ________________.
veins
Vascular tissue of a plant make up the plant's ______.
root
The part of the plant anchors and absorbs minerals and water is the
guard cells
The stomata of the plant leaf is regulated by _______.
parenchyma
The most common plant cell which has thin cell walls and large vacuoles...
antheridia
Moss plants produce sperm in the ____________.
prothallus
In the fern life cycle, the spores germinates into a heart shaped gametophyte called a ____________.
ectoderm
During the embryological develop, the skin and nervous tissue is formed from the __________ layer.
Crustacea
Crabs, lobsters and pill bugs belong to the Class _______.
Echinodermata
Sand dollars, sea stars and sea cucumbers belong to the Class ____________.
suction in the tube feet
Sea stars move and capture prey by the aide of the ____________________.
aging
Sagging, wrinkles and dryness are all effects of __________.
First
Pain and redness are indicators of ____ degree burns.
infection
Third degree burn victims are very susceptible to ____________.
water
The most abundant substance in the body.
GI Tract
The mouth, esophagus, stomach and intestines make up the ________.
accessory organs
The liver, pancreas and gall bladder are ________ to the digestive system.
absorption
The primary function of the small intestine is ____________.
speeds up
A stimulant is a drug that __________ the activities of the nervous system.
urinary bladder
The organ which stores urine before being expelled form the body is the _______________.
nephron
The filtering unit of the kidney...
neurons
Cells of the nervous system are called ___________.
Archaebacteria
The kingdom of prokaryotes living in extreme environments.
fungus
A decomposer that is heterotrophic and eukaryotic.
endospores
Bacteria can survive harsh conditions by forming
round, rod and spiral
The three primary shapes of bacteria are __________.
lytic cycle
A viral cycle which uses the host cell's parts to reproduce more particles and exits the cell killing it.
mutations
Neo-Darwinists believe evolution occurred through beneficial ______________.
ecosystem
Ecologists who study a group of different animals and how they relate to each other and to the abiotic parts of the environment are interested in studying the _________________.